Answering Exams

February 7 – History, Events, Births, Deaths, Holidays and Observances On This Day

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  •  – Leo I the Thracian becomes of the Byzantine Empire.
  •  – Bardas Phokas the Younger and Bardas Skleros, Byzantine generals of the military elite, begin a wide-scale rebellion against Emperor Basil II.
  •  – Edward of Caernarvon (later king Edward II of England) becomes the first  Prince of Wales.
  •  – King Thihathu founds the Pinya Kingdom as the de jure successor state of the Pagan Kingdom
  •  – In Florence, , supporters of  burn cosmetics, , and , in a “Bonfire of the vanities”.
  •  – American Revolutionary War: French and Spanish forces lift the Great Siege of Gibraltar.
  •  – The 11th Amendment to the  Constitution is ratified.
  •  – Napoleonic Wars: Napoleon finds Bennigsen’s Russian forces taking a stand at Eylau. After bitter fighting, the French take the town, but the Russians resume the battle the next day.
  •  – The strongest in a series of earthquakes strikes New Madrid, .
  •  – In the action of 7 February  near the Îles de Los, the frigates Aréthuse and Amelia batter each other, but neither can gain the upper hand.
  •  – Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles leaves  after just taking it over, leaving it in the hands of William Farquhar.
  •  – Battle of Debre Tabor: Ras Ali Alula, Regent of the Emperor of  defeats warlord Wube Haile Maryam of Semien.
  •  – A is approved to found the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology. Lectures started , .
  •  – HMS Orpheus sinks off the coast of Auckland, , killing .
  •  – The Cripple Creek miner’s strike, led by the Western Federation of Miners, begins in Cripple Creek, Colorado, United States.
  •  – Dreyfus affair: Émile Zola is brought to trial for libel for publishing J’Accuse…!.
  •  – Second Boer War: British troops fail in their third attempt to lift the Siege of Ladysmith.
  • 1900 – A immigrant in San Francisco falls ill to bubonic plague in the first plague epidemic in the continental United States.
  •  – A fire begins in Baltimore, Maryland; it destroys over 1, buildings in 30 hours.
  •  – The second full-length animated Walt Disney film, Pinocchio, premieres.
  •  – : Imperial Navy forces complete the evacuation of Imperial Army troops from Guadalcanal during Operation Ke, ending attempts to retake the island from Allied forces in the Guadalcanal Campaign.
  •  – War II: In Anzio, Italy, forces launch a counteroffensive during the Allied Operation Shingle.
  •  –  War: More than 700 suspected communist sympathizers are massacred by South forces.
  •  – The United States bans all Cuban imports and exports.
  •  – Grenada gains independence from the .
  •  –  moves inside Neptune’s orbit for the first time since either was discovered.
  •  – Space Shuttle program: STS-41-B Mission: Astronauts Bruce McCandless II and Robert L. Stewart make the first untethered space walk using the Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU).
  •  – Twenty-eight years of one-family rule end in Haiti, when  Jean-Claude Duvalier flees the Caribbean nation.
  • 0 – Dissolution of the : The Central Committee of the Soviet  agrees to give up its monopoly on power.
  •  – Haiti’s first democratically elected president, Jean-Bertrand Aristide, is sworn in.
  • 1991 – The Troubles: The Provisional IRA launched a mortar attack on 10 Downing Street in London, the headquarters of the British government.
  •  – The Maastricht Treaty is signed, leading to the creation of the  Union.
  •  – Ramzi Yousef, the of the  bombing, is arrested in Islamabad, .
  •  – NeXT merges with  Computer, starting the path to Mac OS X.
  • 1 – Crown Prince Abdullah becomes the King of Jordan on the death of his father, King Hussein.
  •  – Bushfires in Victoria leave dead in the worst natural disaster in ’s history.
  •  – President Mohamed Nasheed of the Republic of Maldives resigns, after 23 days of anti-governmental protests calling for the release of Chief Judge unlawfully arrested by the military.
  •  – The U.S. state of Mississippi officially certifies the Thirteenth Amendment, becoming the last state to approve the abolition of slavery. The Thirteenth Amendment was formally ratified by Mississippi in 1995.
  •  – announce that the Happisburgh footprints in Norfolk, England, date back to more than ,000 years ago, making them the oldest known hominid footprints outside .
  •  – North launches Kwangmyŏngsŏng-4 into outer space violating multiple UN treaties and prompting condemnation from around the world.

Births on February 7

  •  – Prince Shōtoku of (d. )
  • – Empress Matilda, Holy Roman Empress, and claimant to the English throne (probable; d. )
  •  – Thomas More, English lawyer and politician, Lord Chancellor of England (d. )
  •  – Queen Dangyeong, Korean royal consort (d. )
  •  – João de Castro, viceroy of Portuguese (d. )
  •  – Thomas Killigrew, English playwright and manager (d. )
  •  – Vittoria della Rovere, Italian noble (d. )
  •  – Empress Anna of  (d. )
  •  – Azar Bigdeli, anthologist and poet (d. )
  •  – Margaret Fownes-Luttrell, English painter (d. )
  •  – Henry Fuseli, Swiss-English painter and academic (d. )
  •  – Benedikt Schack, Czech tenor and composer (d. )
  •  – Thomas Gregson, English-Australian lawyer and politician, 2nd Premier of Tasmania (baptism date; d. )
  •  – Louisa Jane Hall, American poet, essayist, and literary critic (d. )
  •  – John Deere, American blacksmith and businessman, founded Deere & Company (d. )
  • 1812 – Charles Dickens, English novelist and critic (d. )
  • 1825 – Karl Möbius, German zoologist and ecologist (d. )
  •  – Alfred-Philibert Aldrophe, French architect (d. )
  •  – James Murray, Scottish lexicographer and philologist (d. )
  •  – Arthur Collins, American baritone singer (d. )
  •  – Laura Ingalls Wilder, American author (d. )
  • 1870 – Alfred Adler, Austrian-Scottish psychologist and therapist (d. )
  •  – Wilhelm Stenhammar, Swedish pianist, composer, and conductor (d. )
  •  – Thomas Andrews, Irish shipbuilder and businessman, designed the RMS Titanic (d. )
  •  – G. H. Hardy, English mathematician and geneticist (d. )
  •  – Ossip Gabrilowitsch, Russian-American pianist and conductor (d. )
  •  – Sinclair Lewis, American novelist, short-story writer, and playwright,  laureate (d. 1951)
  • 1885 – Hugo Sperrle, German field marshal (d. )
  •  – Eubie Blake, American pianist and composer (d. )
  •  – Harry Nyquist, Swedish-American engineer and theorist (d. )
  •  – Joseph Algernon Pearce, Canadian astrophysicist and astronomer (d. )
  • 1893 – Nicanor Abelardo, Filipino pianist, composer and teacher (d. )
  • 1895 – Anita Stewart, American actress (d. )
  •  – Arnold Nordmeyer, New Zealand minister and politician, 30th New Zealand Minister of Finance (d. )
  • 1904 – Ernest E. Debs, American politician,  State Assembly member,  city councilman, and a member of the  County Board of Supervisors (d. )
  •  – Paul Nizan, French philosopher and author (d. 1940)
  • 1905 – Ulf von Euler, Swedish physiologist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1983)
  •  – Puyi, Chinese emperor (d. )
  • 1906 – Oleg Konstantinovich Antonov, Russian engineer, founded the Antonov Aircraft Company (d. 1984)
  • 1908 – Buster Crabbe, American swimmer and (d. 1983)
  • 1908 – Manmath Nath Gupta, Indian and author (d. )
  •  – Hélder Câmara, Brazilian archbishop (d. )
  • 1909 – Amedeo Guillet, Italian soldier (d. )
  • 1912 – Russell Drysdale, English-Australian painter (d. )
  • 1915 – Teoctist Arăpașu, Romanian patriarch (d. )
  • 1915 – Eddie Bracken, and singer (d. 2002)
  •  – Frank Hyde, Australian rugby player, coach, and sportscaster (d. 2007)
  •  – Jock Mahoney, American actor and stuntman (d. 1989)
  • 1919 – Desmond Doss, American army corporal and combat medic,  recipient (d. )
  •  – Oscar Brand, Canadian-American singer-songwriter and author (d. 2016)
  • 1920 – An Wang, Chinese-American engineer and businessman, founded Wang Laboratories (d. )
  •  – Athol Rowan, South African (d. )
  •  – Hattie Jacques, English actress (d. )
  •  – Dora Bryan, English actress and restaurateur (d. 2014)
  •  – Hans Schmidt, Canadian wrestler (d. 2012)
  •  – Konstantin Feoktistov, Russian engineer and astronaut (d. 2009)
  • 1926 – Bill Hoest, American cartoonist (d. 1988)
  • 1927 – Juliette Gréco, French singer and actress
  • 1927 – Vladimir Kuts, Ukrainian-Russian runner and coach (d. )
  • 1927 – Lalo Ríos, Mexican actor (d. )
  •  – Lincoln D. Faurer, American (d. 2014)
  •  – Jim Langley, English footballer, full back and manager (d. 2007)
  • 1 – Gay Talese, American journalist and memoirist
  • – Alfred Worden, American colonel, pilot, and astronaut (d. )
  • 1933 – K. N. Choksy, Sri Lankan lawyer and politician, Sri Lankan Minister of Finance (d. )
  • 1934 – Eddie Fenech Adami, Maltese lawyer and politician, 7th President of
  • 1934 – King Curtis, American saxophonist and (d. )
  • 1934 – Earl King, American singer-songwriter, guitarist, and producer (d. )
  •  – Cliff Jones, Welsh international footballer, winger
  • 1935 – Herb Kohl, American businessman and politician
  • 1935 – Jörg Schneider, Swiss actor and author (d. 2015)
  • 1936 – Jas Gawronski, and politician
  • 1937 – Peter Jay, English economist, journalist, and diplomat, British Ambassador to the United States
  • 1937 – Juan Pizarro, Puerto Rican baseball player
  • 1940 – Tony Tan, Singaporean academic and politician, 7th President of Singapore
  •  – Kevin Crossley-Holland, English author and poet
  • 1943 – Eric Foner, American historian, author, and academic
  • 1943 – Gareth Hunt, English actor (d. 2007)
  •  – Gerald Davies, Welsh rugby player and journalist
  •  – Héctor Babenco, Argentinian-Brazilian director, producer, and screenwriter (d. 2016)
  • 1946 – Sammy Johns, American music singer-songwriter (d. 2013)
  • 1946 – Pete Postlethwaite, English actor (d. )
  • 1946 – Gérard Jean-Juste, Haitian priest and activist (d. 2009)
  •  – Jacques Duchesneau, Canadian police officer and politician
  • 1949 – Joe English, American drummer and songwriter
  •  – Karen Joy Fowler, American author
  • 1953 – Dan Quisenberry, American baseball player and poet (d. 1998)
  •  – Dieter Bohlen, German singer-songwriter and producer
  •  – Rolf Benirschke, American football player and game show host
  • 1955 – Miguel Ferrer, American actor and director (d. )
  •  – John Nielsen, Danish racing driver
  • 1956 – Mark St. John, American guitarist (d. 2007)
  • 1957 – Carney Lansford, American baseball player and coach
  •  – Giuseppe Baresi, Italian footballer and manager
  • 1958 – Terry Marsh, English boxer and politician
  • 1958 – Matt Ridley, English journalist, author, and politician
  •  – Mick McCarthy, , manager, and sportscaster
  •  – Robert Smigel, American actor, producer, and screenwriter
  • 1960 – James Spader, American actor and producer
  • 1962 – Garth Brooks, American singer-songwriter and guitarist
  • 1962 – David Bryan, American keyboard player and songwriter
  • 1962 – Eddie Izzard, English comedian, actor, and producer
  •  – Heidemarie Stefanyshyn-Piper, American Naval officer and astronaut
  •  – Ashok Banker, Indian journalist, author, and screenwriter
  •  – Chris Rock, American actor, director, producer, and screenwriter
  •  – Kristin Otto, German swimmer
  •  – Peter Bondra, Ukrainian-Slovak ice player and manager
  • 1968 – Sully Erna, American singer-songwriter and guitarist
  • 1968 – Mark Tewksbury, Canadian swimmer and sportscaster
  •  – Andrew Micallef, Maltese painter and musician
  • 1971 – Anita Tsoy, Russian singer-songwriter
  •  – Robyn Lively, American actress
  • 1973 – Juwan Howard, American basketball player and coach
  • 1974 – J Dilla, and producer (d. 2006)
  • 1974 – Nujabes, Japanese record producer, DJ, composer and arranger (d. 2010)
  • 1974 – Steve Nash, South African-Canadian basketball player
  • 1975 – Wes Borland, American singer-songwriter and guitarist
  • 1975 – Alexandre Daigle, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1975 – Rémi Gaillard, French comedian and actor
  • 1976 – Chito Miranda, Filipino singer-songwriter
  •  – Tsuneyasu Miyamoto, Japanese footballer
  •  – David Aebischer, Swiss ice hockey player
  • 1978 – Endy Chávez, Venezuelan baseball player
  • 1978 – Ashton Kutcher, American model, actor, producer, and entrepreneur
  • 1978 – Daniel Van Buyten, Belgian football player
  • 1979 – Daniel Bierofka, German footballer and coach
  • 1979 – Tawakkol Karman, Yemeni journalist and activist, Nobel Prize laureate
  • 1979 – Sam J. Miller, American author
  • 1981 – Darcy Dolce Neto, Brazilian footballer
  • 1981 – Lee Ok-sung, South Korean boxer
  •  – Osamu Mukai, Japanese actor
  • 1982 – Mickaël Piétrus, French basketball player
  • 1983 – Sho Kamogawa, Japanese footballer
  • 1983 – Christian Klien, Austrian race car driver
  • 1983 – Federico Marchetti, Italian footballer
  • 1984 – Trey Hardee, American decathlete
  •  – Tina Majorino, American actress
  • 1988 – Ai Kago, Japanese singer and actress
  • 1989 – Nick Calathes, Greek basketball player
  • 1989 – Elia Viviani, Italian cyclist
  • 1989 – Isaiah Thomas, American basketball player
  • 1990 – Gianluca Lapadula, Italian footballer
  • 1990 – Dalilah , American hurdler
  • 1990 – Steven Stamkos, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1991 – Ryan O’Reilly, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1992 – Sergi Roberto, Spanish footballer
  • 1992 – Ksenia Stolbova, Russian figure skater
  • 1992 – Maimi Yajima, Japanese singer and actress
  • 1993 – Chris Mears, English diver
  •  – Riley Barber, American ice hockey player
  • 1995 – Roberto Osuna, Mexican baseball player
  •  – Pierre Gasly, French racing driver
  • 1997 – Nicolò Barella, Italian footballer

Deaths on February 7

  • 199 – Lü Bu, Chinese warlord
  •  – Jin Mindi, emperor of the Jin Dynasty (b. 300)
  • 999 – Boleslaus II the Pious, Duke of Bohemia (b. 932)
  •  – Emperor -Suzaku of Japan (b. )
  •  – Siegfried I, Count of Sponheim (b. c. )
  •  – Ava, German poet (b. )
  •  – Marshal Stephen of Armenia
  •  – Thomas, Count of Flanders
  •  – Robert, Count of Clermont (b. )
  •  – Jan Muskata, Bishop of Kraków (b. )
  •  – Nikko, Japanese priest, founder of Nichiren Shoshu Buddhism (b. )
  •  – Alfonsina de’ Medici, Regent of Florence (b. )
  •  – Bartolommeo Bandinelli, Florentine sculptor (b. )
  •  – Bartholomäus Sastrow, German politician (b. 1520)
  •  – William V, Duke of  (b. 1548)
  •  – William Bedell, English bishop and academic (b. )
  • 1693 – Paul Pellisson, French lawyer and author (b. )
  •  – Stephen Gray, English astronomer and physicist (b. )
  •  – William Boyce, English organist and composer (b. )
  •  – Qianlong Emperor of (b. 1711)
  •  – Daniel Chodowiecki, Polish-German painter and academic (b. 1726)
  • 1819 – August Wilhelm Hupel, German-Estonian linguist and author (b. )
  •  – Ann Radcliffe, English author (b. )
  • 1837 – Gustav IV Adolf of  (b. )
  •  – Mariano Paredes, Mexican general and 16th president (-) (b. )
  •  – Francisco de Paula Martínez de la Rosa y Berdejo, Spanish playwright and politician, Prime Minister of  (b. )
  • 1864 – Vuk Karadžić, Serbian philologist and linguist (b. 1787)
  • 1871 – Henry E. Steinway, German-American businessman, founded Steinway & Sons (b. 1797)
  • 1873 – Sheridan Le Fanu, Irish author (b. )
  • 1878 – Pope Pius IX (b. )
  •  – Marie Louise Andrews, American story writer and journalist (b. 1849)
  •  – Galileo Ferraris, Italian physicist and engineer (b. )
  • 1919 – William Halford, English-American lieutenant, Medal of Honor recipient (b. )
  • 1920 – Alexander Kolchak, Russian admiral and explorer (b. 1874)
  • 1920 – Charles Langelier, Canadian journalist, judge, and politician (b. )
  • 1921 – John J. Gardner, American politician (b. 1845)
  • 1937 – Elihu Root, American lawyer and politician, 38th United States Secretary of State, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1845)
  •  – Harvey Samuel Firestone, American businessman, founded the Firestone Tire and Rubber Company (b. )
  •  – Boris Grigoriev, and (b. 1886)
  •  – Ivan Bilibin, Russian illustrator and stage designer (b. )
  • 1944 – Lina Cavalieri, Italian soprano and actress (b. 1874)
  • 1959 – Nap Lajoie, American baseball player and manager (b. 1874)
  • 1959 – Daniel François Malan, South African minister and politician, 5th Prime Minister of South Africa (b. 1874)
  • 1959 – Guitar Slim, American singer and guitarist (b. 1926)
  • 1960 – Igor Kurchatov, Russian physicist and academic (b. )
  • 1963 – Learco Guerra, Italian cyclist and manager (b. )
  • 1964 – Sofoklis Venizelos, Greek captain and politician, 133rd Prime Minister of  (b. 1894)
  • 1968 – Nick Adams, American actor and screenwriter (b. )
  • 1972 – Walter Lang, American director and screenwriter (b. )
  • 1979 – Josef Mengele, German SS officer and physician (b. )
  • 1986 – Cheikh Anta Diop, Senegalese historian, anthropologist, and physicist (b. 1923)
  • 1990 – Alan Perlis, American computer and academic (b. 1922)
  • 1990 – Alfredo M. Santos, Filipino general (b. 1905)
  • 1991 – Amos Yarkoni, Israeli colonel (b. 1920)
  • 1994 – Witold Lutosławski, Polish composer and conductor (b. )
  • 1996 – Phillip Davidson, American general (b. 1915)
  • 1999 – King Hussein of Jordan (b. 1935)
  • 1999 – Bobby Troup, American actor, pianist, and composer (b. )
  • 2000 – Doug Henning, Canadian magician and politician (b. 1947)
  •  – Dale Evans, American singer-songwriter and actress (b. 1912)
  • 2001 – Anne Morrow Lindbergh, American author and pilot (b. 1906)
  • 2003 – Augusto Monterroso, Guatemalan author (b. 1921)
  •  – Atli Dam, Faroese engineer and politician, 5th Prime Minister of the Faroe Islands (b. 1932)
  • 2006 – Princess Durru Shehvar of the (b. )
  • 2009 – Blossom Dearie, American singer and pianist (b. )
  • 2010 – Franco Ballerini, Italian cyclist and coach (b. 1964)
  • 2012 – Harry Keough, American and coach (b. 1927)
  • 2013 – Krsto Papić, Croatian director and screenwriter (b. 1933)
  • 2014 – Doug Mohns, Canadian-American ice hockey player (b. 1933)
  • 2015 – Billy Casper, American golfer and architect (b. 1931)
  • 2015 – Marshall Rosenberg, American psychologist and author (b. 1934)
  • 2015 – Dean Smith, American basketball player and coach (b. 1931)
  • 2015 – John C. Whitehead, American banker and politician, 9th United States Deputy Secretary of State (b. 1922)
  • 2017 – Richard Hatch, American actor (b. 1945)
  • 2017 – Hans Rosling, Swedish academic (b. )
  • 2017 – Tzvetan Todorov, Bulgarian philosopher (b. 1939)
  •  – John Dingell, American politician (b. 1926)
  • 2019 – Albert Finney, English actor (b. 1936)
  • 2019 – Jan Olszewski, Polish politician, 3rd Prime Minister (b. )
  • 2019 – Frank Robinson, American baseball player, coach, and manager (b. 1935)

Holidays and observances on February 7

  • Christian feast day:
    • Richard the Pilgrim
    • Blessed Eugénie Smet
    • Blessed Pope Pius IX
    • Chrysolius
    • Egidio Maria of Saint Joseph
    • Colette of Corbie
    • February 7 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)
    • New Martyrs and Confessors of the Russian Orthodox Church Typically observed on the closest to (O.S.)/February 7 (N.S.)
  • Independence Day (Grenada), celebrates the independence of Grenada from the United Kingdom in 1974.
  • National Black HIV/AIDS Awareness Day (United States)
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