Answering Exams

January 4 – History, Events, Births, Deaths, Holidays and Observances On This Day

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  •  – Julius Caesar fights Titus Labienus in the Battle of Ruspina.
  •  – Battle of Reading: Æthelred of Wessex and his brother Alfred are defeated by a Danish invasion army.
  •  – Civil War: The Rump Parliament votes to put Charles I on trial.
  • 17 – The Netherlands, Great Britain, and sign the Triple Alliance in an attempt to maintain the Treaty of Utrecht; Britain having signed a preliminary alliance with on (, ).
  •  – Great Britain declares war on , thus entering the Seven Years’ War.
  •  – Constantine Hangerli arrives in Bucharest, Wallachia, as its new Prince, invested by the .
  •  – After having been kidnapped and sold into slavery in the American South, Solomon Northup regains his freedom; his memoir Twelve Years a Slave later becomes a national bestseller.
  •  – The McDonald Islands are discovered by Captain William McDonald aboard the Samarang.
  •  – The New Apostolic Church, a Christian and chiliastic church, is established in Hamburg, .
  • – Russo-Turkish War (–78): Sofia is liberated from Ottoman rule and designated the capital of Liberated Bulgaria.
  •  – The Fabian Society is founded in London, .
  •  – Sino-French War: French troops under  Oscar de Négrier defeat a numerically superior Qing force at Núi Bop in northern .
  •  – Utah is admitted as the 45th U.S. state.
  •  – Topsy, an elephant, is electrocuted by the owners of Luna Park, Coney Island. The Edison film company records the film Electrocuting an Elephant of Topsy’s death.
  • – The Scout Association is incorporated throughout the British Empire by the royal charter.
  •  – The Finnish Declaration of Independence is recognized by , , Germany and France.
  •  – : Operation Carpetbagger, involving the dropping of arms and supplies to resistance fighters in Europe, begins.
  •  – Burma gains its independence from the United Kingdom becoming an republic, named the Union of Burma, with Sao Shwe Thaik as its first and U Nu its first Prime Minister.
  •  – : and North  forces capture Seoul.
  •  – The Greek National Radical Union is formed by Konstantinos Karamanlis.
  •  – Sputnik 1, the first artificial Earth satellite, launched by the in , falls to Earth from orbit.
  •  – Luna 1 becomes the first spacecraft to reach the vicinity of the Moon.
  •  – Rose Heilbron becomes the first female judge to sit at the Old Bailey in London, .
  •  – The Troubles: The Ulster Volunteer Force shoots dead six Irish Catholic civilians in County Armagh, Northern Ireland. The next day, gunmen would shoot dead ten Protestant civilians nearby in retaliation.
  •  – The Maryland train collision: An Amtrak train en route to Boston from Washington, D.C., collides with Conrail engines in Chase, Maryland, , killing 16 people.
  •  – Second Gulf of Sidra incident: A pair of Libyan MiG-23 “Floggers” are shot down by a pair of Navy F-14 Tomcats during an air-to-air confrontation.
  •  – In ’s deadliest train accident an overloaded passenger train collides with an empty freight train, resulting in deaths and 700 injuries.
  •  – A massive ice storm hits eastern and the northeastern United States, continuing through  and causing widespread destruction.
  •  – Former professional wrestler Jesse Ventura is sworn in as of Minnesota, United States.
  •  – Spirit, a NASA Mars rover, lands successfully on Mars at 04:35 UTC.
  • 2004 – Mikheil Saakashvili is elected President of  following the November  Rose Revolution.
  •  – Ehud Olmert becomes acting Prime Minister of Israel after the incumbent, Ariel Sharon, suffers a second, apparently more serious stroke.
  •  – The 110th United States Congress convenes, electing Nancy Pelosi as the first female Speaker of the House in U.S. history.
  •  – The Burj Khalifa, the current tallest building in the , officially opens in Dubai.
  •  – A gunman kills eight people in a house-to-house rampage in Kawit, Cavite, .
  •  – Hennenman–Kroonstad train crash: A passenger train operated by Shosholoza Meyl collides with a truck on a level crossing at Geneva Station between Hennenman and Kroonstad, Free State, South . Twenty people are killed and 260 injured.

Births on January 4

  •  – Ali ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin (d.)
  •  –  Zhezong of (d. )
  •  – Amadeus VI, Count of Savoy (d. )
  •  – Bodo VIII, Count of Stolberg-Wernigerode (d. )
  •  – James Ussher, Irish archbishop and historian (d. )
  •  – Isaac Newton, English mathematician and physicist (d. )
  •  – Lars Roberg, Swedish physician and academic (d. )
  •  – Hugh Boulter, English-Irish archbishop (d. 1742)
  •  – Giovanni Battista Pergolesi, Italian composer, violinist, and organist (d. )
  •  – Johann Friedrich Agricola, organist and composer (d. )
  •  – Jacob Grimm, German philologist and mythologist (d. 1863)
  •  – Louis Braille, French educator, invented Braille (d. )
  •  – Isaac Pitman, English linguist and educator (d. )
  •  – George Tryon, English admiral (d. )
  •  – General Tom Thumb, American circus performer (d. )
  •  – Carl Humann, German archaeologist, architect, and engineer (d. 1896)
  •  – Katsura Tarō, general and politician, 6th Prime Minister of  (d. )
  •  – Carter Glass, American publisher and politician, 47th United States Secretary of the Treasury (d. )
  •  – Clara Emilia Smitt, Swedish doctor and author (d. )
  •  – Tommy Corcoran, American baseball player and umpire (d. )
  •  – Josef Suk, Czech violinist and composer (d. )
  • 1877 – Marsden Hartley, American painter and poet (d. )
  • 1878 – A. E. Coppard, English poet and short story writer (d. 1957)
  • 1878 – Augustus John, Welsh painter and (d. )
  •  – Wilhelm Lehmbruck, German sculptor (d. )
  • 1883 –  Eastman, American author and poet (d. )
  • 1883 – Johanna Westerdijk, pathologist and academic (d. 1961)
  • 1884 – Guy Pène du Bois, American painter, critic, and educator (d. 1958)
  •  – M. Patanjali Sastri, Indian lawyer and jurist, 2nd Chief Justice of  (d. )
  •  – Edward Brooker, English-Australian sergeant and politician, 31st Premier of Tasmania (d. 1948)
  •  – Leroy Grumman, American engineer and businessman, co-founded Grumman Aeronautical Engineering Co. (d. )
  • 1896 – Everett Dirksen, American politician (d. 1969)
  • 1896 – André Masson, French painter and illustrator (d. 1987)
  • 1897 – Chen Cheng, Chinese politician,  of the Republic of China (d. )
  •  – , American ornithologist and zoologist (d. 1989)
  •  – C. L. R. James, Trinidadian and theorist (d. 1989)
  •  – John A. McCone, American businessman and politician, 6th Director of Central Intelligence (d. )
  •  – Sterling Holloway, American (d. )
  • 1913 – Malietoa Tanumafili II, Samoan ruler (d. 2007)
  •  – Lionel Newman, American pianist and composer (d. 1989)
  • 1916 – Robert Parrish, and director (d. )
  •  – William Colby, American intelligence officer, 10th Director of Central Intelligence (d. )
  •  – Marianne Werner, German shot putter
  •  – Veikko Hakulinen, Finnish skier and technician (d. 2003)
  •  – Paul Desmarais, Canadian businessman and philanthropist (d. 2013)
  • 1927 – Barbara Rush, American actress
  •  – Günter Schabowski, German journalist and politician (d. )
  •  – Sorrell Booke, American actor and director (d. )
  • 1930 – Don Shula, American football player and coach (d. )
  •  – William Deane, Australian judge and politician, 22nd Governor-General of
  • 1931 – Nora Iuga, Romanian poet, writer and translator
  • 1931 – Coşkun Özarı, Turkish footballer and coach (d. )
  •  – Clint Hill, American secret service agent and author
  • 1932 – Carlos Saura, Spanish director and screenwriter
  •  – Rudolf Schuster, Slovak politician, 2nd President of
  • 1935 – Floyd Patterson, American boxer (d. 2006)
  •  – Grace Bumbry, American operatic soprano
  • 1937 – Dyan Cannon, American actress, director, , and screenwriter
  •  – Gao Xingjian, Chinese novelist, playwright, and critic,  laureate
  • 1940 – Brian Josephson, Welsh physicist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate
  •  – George P. Cosmatos, Italian-Canadian director and screenwriter (d. )
  • 1941 – Kalpnath Rai, Indian politician (d. 1999)
  •  – Bolaji Akinyemi, Nigerian political , academic, and politician
  • 1942 – John McLaughlin, English guitarist and songwriter
  • 1943 – Doris Kearns Goodwin, American historian and author
  • 1943 – Hwang Sok-yong, South Korean author and educator
  •  – Richard R. Schrock, American chemist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate
  • 1946 – Arthur Conley, American singer-songwriter (d. 2003)
  •  – Marie-Thérèse Letablier, French sociologist and academic
  • 1948 – Kostas Davourlis, Greek footballer (d. 1992)
  • 1948 – Cissé Mariam Kaïdama Sidibé, Malian civil servant and politician, Prime Minister of Mali
  •  – Khondakar Ashraf Hossain, Bangladesh poet and academic (d. 2013)
  •  – Norberto Alonso, Argentinian footballer
  •  – Tina Knowles, American fashion designer, founded House of Deréon
  • 1956 – Ann Magnuson, American actress and performance artist
  • 1956 – Zehava Gal-On, Israeli politician
  • 1956 – Bernard Sumner, English singer-songwriter, guitarist, and producer
  • 1957 – Patty Loveless, American singer-songwriter and guitarist
  • 1958 – Matt Frewer, American-Canadian actor
  • 1960 – Michael Stipe, American singer-songwriter and producer
  • 1963 – Dave Foley, Canadian comedian, actor, director, and producer
  • 1963 – Martina Proeber, German diver
  •  – Susan Devoy, squash player
  • 1965 – Guy Forget, French player
  • 1965 – Craig Revel Horwood, Australian-English dancer, choreographer, and director
  • 1965 – Julia Ormond, English actress and producer
  •  – Deana Carter, American singer-songwriter and guitarist
  •  – David Toms, American golfer and philanthropist
  •  – Paul Watson, and physiotherapist
  •  – Dominik Hrbatý, Slovak tennis player
  •  – Miguel Monteiro, Portuguese footballer
  •  – Kari Aalvik Grimsbø, Norwegian handball player
  • 1985 – Gökhan Gönül, Turkish footballer
  • 1985 – Al Jefferson, American basketball player
  •  – James Milner, English footballer
  • 1986 – Younès Kaboul, French footballer
  • 1989 – Graham Rahal, American race car driver
  • 1990 – Toni Kroos, German footballer
  • 1992 – Kris Bryant, American baseball player
  • 1994 – Derrick Henry, American football player
  •  – Ante Žižić, Croatian basketball player
  • 1998 – Liza Soberano, Filipina actress

Deaths on January 4

  • 871 – Æthelwulf, Saxon ealdorman
  •  – Hasan al-Askari, eleventh of the Twelve Imams (probable; b. )
  •  – Sancho II of  (b. )
  •  – Robert de Lisle, 1st Baron Lisle, English peer (b. )
  •  – Nicholas Eymerich, Catalan theologian and inquisitor
  •  – Muzio Sforza, Italian condottiero
  •  – Frederick I, Elector of Saxony (b. )
  •  – Tobias Stimmer, Swiss painter and illustrator (b. )
  •  – Ferenc Nádasdy, Hungarian noble (b. )
  •  – François-Henri de Montmorency, duc de Luxembourg, French general (b. )
  •  – Gabriel Cramer, Swiss mathematician and physicist (b. )
  •  – Stephen Hales, English clergyman and physiologist (b. )
  •  – Ange-Jacques Gabriel, French architect, designed École Militaire (b. )
  • Mendelssohn, German philosopher, and theologian (b. )
  •  – Charlotte Lennox, English author and poet (b. )
  •  – Elizabeth Ann Seton, American nun and saint (b. 1774)
  •  – Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies (b. )
  • 1863 – Roger Hanson, American general (b. )
  • 1874 – Thomas Gregson, English-Australian lawyer and politician, 2nd Premier of Tasmania (b. 1798)
  • 1877 – Cornelius Vanderbilt, American businessman and philanthropist (b. )
  •  – Anselm Feuerbach, German painter and educator (b. )
  • 1880 – Edward William Cooke, English painter and illustrator (b. )
  •  – John William Draper, English-American physician, chemist, and photographer (b. 1811)
  • 1883 – Antoine Chanzy, French general (b. )
  • 1891 – Antoine Labelle, Canadian priest (b. )
  • 1896 – Joseph Hubert Reinkens, German bishop and academic (b. 1821)
  • 1900 – Stanisław Mieroszewski, Polish-born politician, writer, historian and member of the Imperial Council of (b. 1827)
  • 1901 – Nikolaos Gyzis, Greek painter and academic (b. )
  •  – Anna Winlock, American astronomer and academic (b. )
  •  – Léon Delagrange, French pilot and sculptor (b. )
  • 1912 – Clarence Dutton, American geologist and soldier (b. )
  • 1919 – Georg von Hertling, German academic and politician, 7th Chancellor of the German Empire (b. )
  • 1920 – Benito Pérez Galdós, Spanish author and playwright (b. 1843)
  • 1924 – Alfred Grünfeld, Austrian pianist and composer (b. 1852)
  • 1925 – Nellie Cashman, American nurse, restaurateur, entrepreneur, and gold prospector (b. )
  • 1927 – Süleyman Nazif, Turkish poet and civil servant (b. )
  • 1931 –  Acord, American actor and stuntman (b. )
  • 1931 – Louise, Princess Royal of the United Kingdom (b. )
  • 1931 – Mohammad Ali Jouhar, Indian journalist, activist, and scholar (b. 1878)
  • 1940 – Flora Finch, English-American actress and producer (b. 1867)
  • 1941 – Henri Bergson, French philosopher and academic, Nobel Prize laureate (b. )
  • 1943 – Jerzy Iwanow-Szajnowicz, Greek-Polish swimmer and water polo player (b. )
  • 1944 – Kaj Munk, Danish playwright and pastor (b. )
  • 1960 – Albert Camus, French novelist, philosopher, and journalist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1913)
  • 1961 – Erwin Schrödinger, Austrian physicist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate (b. )
  •  – Hans Lammers, German jurist and politician (b. )
  • 1965 – T. S. Eliot, American-English poet, playwright, and critic, Nobel Prize laureate (b. )
  • 1967 – Donald Campbell, English racing driver and world speed record holder (b. )
  • 1969 – Paul Chambers, American bassist and composer (b. 1935)
  • 1975 – Carlo Levi, Italian painter, author, and activist (b. 1902)
  • 1985 – Brian Horrocks, Indian-English general (b. 1895)
  • 1986 – Christopher Isherwood, English-American author and academic (b. 1904)
  • 1986 – Phil Lynott, Irish singer-songwriter, bass player, and producer (b. )
  •  – Lily Laskine, French harp player (b. 1893)
  • 1990 – Harold Eugene Edgerton, American engineer and academic (b. 1903)
  • 1990 – Henry Bolte, Australian sergeant and politician, 38th Premier of Victoria (b. )
  • 1994 – R. D. Burman, Indian film composer and music director (b.
  • 1995 – Eduardo Mata, Mexican conductor and composer (b. 1942)
  • 1995 – Sol Tax, American anthropologist and academic (b. )
  • 1997 – Harry Helmsley, American businessman (b. )
  • 1998 – Mae Questel, American actress (b. 1908)
  • 1999 – Iron Eyes Cody, American actor and stuntman (b. 1904)
  •  – Spyros Markezinis, Greek lawyer and politician, 170th Prime Minister of  (b. 1909)
  • 2000 – Tom Fears, Mexican-American football player and coach (b. )
  •  – Les Brown, American bandleader and composer (b. 1912)
  • 2004 – Brian Gibson, English director and screenwriter (b. 1944)
  • 2004 – Joan Aiken, English author (b. 1924)
  • 2004 – John Toland, American historian and author (b. 1912)
  • 2005 – Bud Poile, Canadian ice player, coach, and manager (b. 1924)
  • 2005 – Frank Harary, American mathematician and academic (b. 1921)
  • 2005 – Humphrey Carpenter, English host and author (b. 1946)
  • 2005 – Robert Heilbroner, American economist and historian (b. 1919)
  • 2006 – Irving Layton, Romanian-Canadian poet and academic (b. 1912)
  • 2006 – Maktoum bin Rashid Al Maktoum, Emirati politician, 1st Prime Minister of the United Arab Emirates (b. 1946)
  • 2006 – Milton Himmelfarb, American sociographer, author, and academic (b. 1918)
  • 2007 – Helen Hill, American director and producer (b. )
  • 2007 – Steve Krantz, American screenwriter and producer (b. )
  • 2007 – Marais Viljoen, South African politician, 5th State President of South Africa (b. )
  •  – Xavier Chamorro Cardenal, Nicaraguan journalist (b. 1932)
  •  – Gert Jonke, Austrian poet, playwright, and author (b. 1946)
  • 2010 – Johan Ferrier, Surinamese educator and politician, 1st President of  (b. 1910)
  • 2010 – Tsutomu Yamaguchi, Japanese engineer (b. 1916)
  • 2011 – Coen Moulijn, Dutch footballer (b. 1937)
  • 2011 – Gerry Rafferty, Scottish singer-songwriter (b. 1947)
  • 2011 – Salmaan Taseer, Pakistani businessman and politician, 26th Governor of Punjab, Pakistan (b. 1944)
  •  – Eve Arnold, American photographer and journalist (b. 1912)
  • 2012 – Rod Robbie, English-Canadian architect, designed the Canadian Pavilion and Rogers Centre (b. 1928)
  • 2013 – Anwar Shamim, Pakistani general (b. 1931)
  • 2013 – Zoran Žižić, Montenegrin politician, 4th Prime Minister of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (b. 1951)
  • 2015 – Pino Daniele, Italian singer-songwriter and guitarist (b. )
  •  – S. H. Kapadia, Indian lawyer, judge, and politician, 38th Chief Justice of India (b. 1947)
  • 2016 – Stephen W. Bosworth, American academic and diplomat, United States Ambassador to  (b. 1939)
  •  – Milt Schmidt, Canadian ice hockey player, coach and general manager (b. 1918)
  • 2017 – Georges Prêtre, French orchestral and opera conductor (b. 1924)
  •  – Harold Brown, 14th United States Secretary of Defense (b. 1927)
  • 2020 – Tom Long, Australian actor (b. )

Holidays and observances on January 4

  • Christian feast day:
    • Angela of Foligno
    • Elizabeth Ann Seton
    • Ferréol of Uzès
    • Mavilus
    • Pharaildis of Ghent
    • Rigobert
    • January 4 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)
  • The eleventh of the Twelve Days of Christmas. (Western )
  • Independence Day (Myanmar), celebrates the independence of Myanmar from the United Kingdom in 1948.
  • Colonial Martyrs Repression Day (Angola)
  • Day of the Martyrs ( Republic of the Congo)
  • Ogoni Day (Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People)
  • Tokyo Dome Show: The annual Wrestle Kingdom event run by New Japan Pro Wrestling
  • World Braille Day
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