Answering Exams

February 16 – History, Events, Births, Deaths, Holidays and Observances On This Day

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  •  – Andrew of Longjumeau is dispatched by Louis IX of  as his ambassador to meet with the Khagan of the Mongol Empire.
  •  – Grand Duchy of Lithuania defeats the Livonian Order in the Battle of Karuse.
  •  – forces led by Hendrick Lonck capture Olinda in what was to become part of  .
  •  – Battle of Torrington, Devon: The last major battle of the first  Civil War.
  •  – First Leopoldine Diploma is issued by the Holy , recognizing the Greek Catholic clergy enjoyed the same privileges as Roman Catholic priests in the Principality of Transylvania.
  •  – Spencer Compton, Earl of Wilmington, becomes British Prime Minister.
  •  – Colombo in Ceylon (now ) falls to the British, completing their invasion of Ceylon.
  •  – First Barbary War: Stephen Decatur leads a raid to burn the pirate-held frigate USS Philadelphia.
  •  – :  Ulysses S. Grant captures Fort Donelson, Tennessee.
  •  – Spencer Compton Cavendish, Marquess of Hartington becomes British Secretary of State for War.
  •  – The Canadian Pacific Railway is incorporated by Act of Parliament at Ottawa (44th Vic., c.1).
  •  – Iceland’s first football club, Knattspyrnufélag Reykjavíkur, is founded.
  •  – The Council of Lithuania unanimously adopts the Act of Independence, declaring Lithuania an state.
  •  – Howard Carter unseals the burial chamber of Pharaoh Tutankhamun.
  • 130 – The Romanian Football Federation joins FIFA.
  •  – The Austrian Civil War ends with the defeat of the Social  and the Republikanischer Schutzbund.
  •  – The Popular Front wins the  Spanish general election.
  •  – Wallace H. Carothers receives a  patent for nylon.
  •  – : Altmark incident: The  tanker Altmark is boarded by sailors from the British destroyer HMS Cossack. 299 British prisoners are freed.
  •  – War II: In the early phases of the Third Battle of Kharkov, Red Army troops re-enter the city.
  •  – World War II: American forces land on Corregidor Island in the .
  •  – Fidel Castro becomes Premier of Cuba after dictator Fulgencio Batista was overthrown on .
  •  – The U.S. Navy submarine USS Triton begins Operation Sandblast, setting sail from New London, Connecticut, to begin the first submerged circumnavigation of the globe.
  •  – Explorer program: Explorer 9 (S-56a) is launched.
  •  – Flooding in the coastal areas of kills and destroys the homes of about 60,000 people.
  •  – In Haleyville, Alabama, the first 9-1-1 emergency telephone system goes into service.
  •  – The first computer bulletin board system is created (CBBS in Chicago).
  •  – The Ash bushfires in Victoria and South  kill 75.
  •  – Hezbollah is founded.
  •  – The Soviet liner MS Mikhail Lermontov runs aground in the Marlborough Sounds, .
  • 1986 –  Airlines Flight 2265 crashes into the Pacific Ocean near Penghu Airport in , killing all 13 aboard.
  •  – Nicaraguan Contras leader Enrique Bermúdez is assassinated in Managua.
  •  – A Chicago-bound Amtrak train, the Capitol Limited, collides with a MARC commuter train bound for Washington, D.C., killing 11 people.
  •  – China Airlines Flight  crashes into a road and residential area near Chiang Kai-shek Airport in Taiwan, killing all 196 aboard and seven more on the ground.
  •  – The Kyoto Protocol comes into force, following its ratification by .
  • 2005 – The National League cancels the entire –05 regular season and playoffs.
  •  – The last Mobile army surgical hospital (MASH) is decommissioned by the United States Army.
  •  – A bomb blast at a market in Hazara Town, Quetta,  kills more than 80 people and injures others.

Births on February 16

  •  – Nichiren, founder of Nichiren Buddhism (d. )
  •  – Jayaatu Khan Tugh Temür, (d. )
  •  – Coluccio Salutati, Italian political leader (d. )
  •  – John I, Duke of Cleves (d. )
  •  – Eric I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (d. )
  •  – Krishnadevaraya, emperor of the Vijayanagara Empire (d. )
  •  – Philip Melanchthon, German astronomer, theologian, and academic (d. )
  •  – Georg Joachim Rheticus, Austrian cartographer and instrument maker (d. )
  •  – Gaspard II de Coligny, French admiral (d. )
  •  – Kanō Eitoku, painter and educator (d. )
  •  – Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg (d. )
  •  – John Sharp, English archbishop (d. )
  •  – Pierre Bouguer, French mathematician, geophysicist, and astronomer (d. )
  •  – Nikolaus Joseph von Jacquin, Austrian botanist, chemist, and mycologist (d. )
  •  – Giambattista Bodoni, Italian publisher and engraver (d. )
  •  – Jean-Charles Pichegru, French general (d. 1804)
  •  – Pierre Rode, French violinist and composer (d. )
  •  – Maria Pavlovna, Russian Grand Duchess (d. )
  •  – Phineas Quimby, American mystic and philosopher (d. 1866)
  • 1804 – Karl Theodor Ernst von Siebold, German physiologist and zoologist (d. )
  •  – Henry Wilson, American colonel and politician, 18th Vice of the United States (d. )
  •  – Heinrich Barth, German explorer and scholar (d. )
  •  – Francis Galton, and statistician (d. )
  •  – Peter Kosler, Slovenian lawyer, geographer, and cartographer (d. )
  •  – Joseph Victor von Scheffel, German poet and author (d. )
  • 1830 – Lars Hertervig, Norwegian painter (d. )
  •  – Nikolai Leskov, Russian author, playwright, and (d. )
  •  – Ernst Haeckel, German biologist, physician, and philosopher (d. )
  •  – Henry Adams, American journalist, historian, and author (d. 1918)
  •  – Armand Guillaumin, French painter (d. )
  •  – Henry M. Leland, American engineer and businessman, founded Cadillac and Lincoln (d. )
  •  – George Kennan, American journalist and explorer (d. )
  •  – Hugo de Vries, Dutch botanist, geneticist, and academic (d. )
  • 1848 – Octave Mirbeau, French journalist, novelist, and playwright (d. )
  •  – Ossian Everett Mills, American academic, founded Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia (d. )
  • 1866 – Billy Hamilton, American baseball player and manager (d. 1940)
  •  – Edward S. Curtis, American ethnologist and photographer (d. )
  •  – Radoje Domanović, Serbian journalist and author (d. )
  •  – G. M. Trevelyan, English historian and academic (d. 1962)
  •  – Pamela Colman Smith, English occultist and (d. )
  • 1878 – James Colosimo, Italian-American mob boss (d. 1920)
  •  – Robert J. Flaherty, German-Irish American director and (d. 1951)
  • 1886 – Andy Ducat, English international footballer (forward and manager) and (d. )
  •  – Kathleen Clifford, American actress (d. 1962)
  •  – Hans F. K. Günther, German eugenicist and academic (d. 1968)
  •  – Katharine Cornell, American actress and producer (d. )
  •  – Eugénie Blanchard, French super-centenarian (d. )
  •  – Wayne King, American singer-songwriter and conductor (d. 1985)
  • 1901 – Chester Morris, American (d. )
  • 1 – Cyril , South African cricketer (d. 1968)
  •  – Edgar Bergen, Swedish-American ventriloquist and actor (d. 1978)
  •  – James Baskett, African- and singer (d. )
  • 1904 – George F. Kennan, Scotch-Irish American historian and diplomat, United States Ambassador to the  (d. 2005)
  •  – Henrietta Barnett, British ’s Royal Air Force officer (d. 1985)
  •  – Vera Menchik, British-Czechoslovak-Russian chess player (d. )
  •  – Hugh Beaumont, American actor and director (d. )
  • 1909 – Richard McDonald, Irish-American businessman, co-founded McDonald’s (d. 1998)
  •  – Jimmy Wakely, American music singer-songwriter and actor (d. 1982)
  •  – Bill Doggett, African-American pianist and composer (d. 1996)
  • 1919 – Georges Ulmer, Danish-French actor and composer (d. )
  • 1920 – Anna Mae Hays, American general (d. )
  •  – Vera-Ellen, German-American actress, singer, and dancer (d. )
  • 1921 – Jean Behra, French race car driver (d. 1959)
  • 1921 – John Galbraith Graham, English priest and academic (d. 2013)
  •  – Heinz-Wolfgang Schnaufer, German soldier and pilot (d. )
  • 1923 – Samuel Willenberg, Polish-Israeli sculptor and painter (d. )
  •  – Margot Frank, German-Dutch holocaust victim (d. 1945)
  • 1926 – John Schlesinger, English actor and director (d. )
  • 1927 – June Brown, English actress
  •  – Gerhard Hanappi, Austrian footballer and architect (d. )
  • 1929 – Peter Porter, Australian-English poet and educator (d. 2010)
  •  – Otis Blackwell, American singer-songwriter and pianist (d. )
  • 1931 – Ken Takakura, Japanese actor and singer (d. )
  • 1932 – Ahmad Tejan Kabbah, Sierra Leonean economist, lawyer, and politician, 3rd President of Sierra Leone (d. 2014)
  • 1932 – Gretchen Wyler, American actress, singer, and dancer (d. )
  • 1934 – August Coppola, American author and academic (d. )
  • 1934 – Marlene Hagge, American golfer
  • 1935 – Brian Bedford, English-American actor and director (d. 2016)
  • 1935 – Sonny Bono, American actor, singer, and politician (d. 1998)
  • 1935 – Stephen Gaskin, American activist, co-founded The Farm (d. 2014)
  • 1935 – Bradford Parkinson, American colonel and engineer
  • 1935 – Kenneth Price, American painter and sculptor (d. )
  • 1937 – Paul Bailey, British novelist, critic, and biographer
  • 1937 – Yuri Manin, Russian-German mathematician and academic
  •  – John Corigliano, American composer and academic
  •  – Adolfo Azcuna, Filipino lawyer and judge
  • 1940 – Hannelore Schmatz, German mountaineer (d. )
  •  – Kim Jong-il, North commander and politician, 2nd Supreme Leader of North  (d. )
  • 1942 – Richard Williams, American player and coach
  • 1944 – Glyn Davies, Welsh farmer and politician
  • 1944 – Richard Ford, American novelist and short story writer
  • 1944 – Sigiswald Kuijken, Belgian violinist, violist, and conductor
  • 1944 – António Mascarenhas Monteiro, Cape Verdean politician, 2nd President of  (d. 2016)
  •  – Jaroslav Kubera, Czech politician (d. )
  • 1948 – Kaiketsu Masateru, Japanese sumo wrestler and coach (d. 2014)
  •  – Bob O’Reilly, Australian rugby league player
  • 1950 – Peter Hain, Kenyan-Welsh politician, Secretary of State for Wales
  • 1951 – Barry Foote, American baseball player and coach
  • 1952 – William Katt, American actor, director, and screenwriter
  • 1952 – Peter Kitchen, , striker
  • 1952 – James Ingram, American singer-songwriter and producer (d. )
  •  – John Bradbury, English drummer, songwriter, and producer (d. )
  • 1953 – Lanny McDonald, Canadian ice hockey player and manager
  • 1953 – Roberta Williams, American video game designer, co-founded Sierra Entertainment
  •  – Iain Banks, Scottish author and playwright (d. 2013)
  • 1954 – Margaux Hemingway, American model and actress (d. 1996)
  • 1954 – Michael Holding, Jamaican cricketer and sportscaster
  •  – Vincent Ward, New Zealand director and screenwriter
  •  – LeVar Burton, German-born American actor, director, and producer
  •  – Natalie Angier, American author
  • 1958 – Ice-T, and actor
  • 1958 – Oscar Schmidt, Brazilian basketball player
  • 1958 – Herb Williams, American basketball player and coach
  • 1959 – John McEnroe, German-American tennis player and sportscaster
  • 1959 – Kelly Tripucka, American basketball player and sportscaster
  • 1960 – Pete Willis, English guitarist and songwriter
  • 1961 – Des Hasler, Australian rugby league player and coach
  • 1961 – Liu Kang, Chinese footballer and manager (d. 2013)
  • 1961 – Andy Taylor, English singer-songwriter, guitarist, and producer
  • 1962 – John Balance, English singer-songwriter (d. 2004)
  •  – Bebeto, Brazilian footballer and manager
  • 1964 – Christopher Eccleston, English actor
  •  – Dave Lombardo, Cuban-American drummer
  •  – Keith Gretzky, Canadian ice hockey player and coach
  • 1968 – Warren Ellis, English author and screenwriter
  • 1970 – Angelo Peruzzi, Italian footballer and manager
  •  – Michael Avenatti, American attorney and pundit
  • 1971 – Craig Laundy, Australian politician
  •  – Jerome Bettis, American football player and sportscaster
  • 1972 – Zoran Čampara, Bosnian football player
  • 1972 – Sarah Clarke, American actress
  • 1972 – Naomi Nishida, Japanese actress
  • 1972 – Darrell Trindall, Australian rugby league player
  •  – Cathy Freeman, Australian sprinter
  • 1974 – Mahershala Ali, American actor
  • 1974 – José Dominguez, Portuguese international footballer, winger and manager
  •  – Eric Byrnes, American baseball player and sportscaster
  • 1976 – Kyo, Japanese singer-songwriter and producer
  •  – Ian Clarke, Irish-American computer , founded Freenet
  • 1977 – Ahman Green, American football player
  • 1978 – Tia Hellebaut, Belgian high jumper and chemist
  • 1978 – Wasim Jaffer, Indian cricketer
  • 1978 – John Tartaglia, American actor, singer, and puppeteer
  • 1979 – Stéphane Dalmat, French footballer, midfielder
  • 1979 – Eric Mun, American-South Korean singer and actor
  • 1979 – Valentino Rossi, Italian motorcycle racer
  • 1980 – Longineu W. Parsons III, French-American drummer
  • 1981 – Jay Howard, English race car driver
  • 1981 – Jerry Owens, American baseball player
  • 1981 – Qyntel Woods, American basketball player
  • 1982 – Aleksandr Dmitrijev, Estonian footballer
  • 1982 – Rickie Lambert, English footballer
  • 1982 – Lupe Fiasco, American rapper
  • 1983 – Agyness Deyn, English model, actress, and singer
  •  – Sofia Arvidsson, Swedish tennis player
  • 1984 – Oussama Mellouli, Tunisian swimmer
  • 1985 – Simon Francis, English footballer
  • 1985 – Stacy Lewis, American golfer
  • 1985 – Ron Vlaar, Dutch footballer
  • 1986 – Diego Godín, Uruguayan footballer
  •  – Luc Bourdon, Canadian ice hockey player (d. )
  • 1987 – Theresa Goh, Singaporean swimmer
  • 1987 – Hasheem Thabeet, Tanzanian basketball player
  •  – Diego Capel, Spanish footballer
  • 1988 – Zhang Jike, Chinese table tennis player
  • 1988 – Denílson Pereira Neves, Brazilian footballer
  • 1988 – Andrea Ranocchia, Italian footballer
  • 1988 – Kim Soo-hyun, South Korean actor and singer
  • 1989 – Elizabeth Olsen, American actress
  •  – Dunamis Lui, Australian-Samoan rugby league player
  • 1990 – The Weeknd, Canadian singer-songwriter and producer
  • 1991 – Sergio Canales, Spanish footballer
  •  – Nicolai Boilesen, Danish footballer
  • 1992 – Zsófia Susányi, Hungarian tennis player
  •  – Annika Beck, German tennis player
  • 1994 – Federico Bernardeschi, Italian footballer
  • 1994 – Ava , American singer and songwriter
  •  – Katy Dunne, English tennis player
  • 1995 – Carina Witthöft, a German tennis player

Deaths on February 16

  •  – Zhu Yi, Chinese general (b. )
  • 902 – Mary the Younger, Byzantine saint (b. )
  •  – Richard of Dover, Archbishop of Canterbury
  •  – Henry Raspe, Landgrave of Thuringia (b. )
  •  – Afonso III of  (b. )
  •  – Gertrude of Hohenberg, queen consort of (b. c.)
  •  – Rupert I, Elector Palatine (b. )
  •  – John V Palaiologos, Byzantine emperor (b. 1332)
  •  – Johannes Stöffler, German mathematician and astronomer (b. )
  • 1560 – Jean du Bellay, French cardinal and diplomat (b. )
  •  – Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada, (b. )
  •  – Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba, Spanish general and politician, 24th  of the Duchy of Milan (b. )
  •  – Esprit Fléchier, French bishop and author (b. )
  •  – James Craggs the Younger, English politician, Secretary of State for the Southern Department (b. )
  •  – Richard Mead, English physician (b. )
  •  – Georg Carl von Döbeln, Swedish general (b. 1758)
  • 1862 – William Pennington American lawyer and politician, 13th Governor of New Jersey, 23rd Speaker of the United States House of Representatives (b. 1796)
  •  – Thomas Bracken, Irish-New Zealand journalist, poet, and politician (b. 1843)
  • 1899 – Félix Faure, French merchant and politician, 7th President of France (b. 1841)
  •  – Giosuè Carducci, Italian poet and educator,  laureate (b. )
  •  – Nicholas of , Russian-Japanese monk and saint (b. )
  • 1917 – Octave Mirbeau, French journalist, novelist, and playwright ( (b. 1848)
  • 1919 – Vera Kholodnaya, Ukrainian actress (b. 1893)
  •  – Eddie Foy Sr., American actor and dancer (b. 1856)
  • 1932 – Ferdinand Buisson, French academic and politician, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1841)
  • 1932 – Edgar Speyer, American-English financier and philanthropist (b. 1862)
  • 1944 – Dadasaheb Phalke, Indian director, producer, and screenwriter (b. )
  • 1957 – Josef Hofmann, Polish-American pianist and composer (b. 1876)
  • 1961 – Dazzy Vance, American baseball player (b. 1891)
  • 1967 – Smiley Burnette, American singer-songwriter and actor (b. 1911)
  • 1974 – John Garand, Canadian-American engineer, designed the M1 Garand Rifle(b. )
  •  – Morgan Taylor, American hurdler and coach (b. 1903)
  • 1977 – Janani Luwum, bishop, Church of Uganda, martyr (b. c.1922)
  • 1977 – Rózsa Péter, Hungarian mathematician (b. 1905)
  • 1980 – Erich Hückel, German physicist and chemist (b. 1895)
  • 1984 – M. A. G. Osmani, Bangladeshi general (b. 1918)
  • 1990 – Keith Haring, American painter and activist (b. 1958)
  • 1991 – Enrique Bermúdez, Nicaraguan lieutenant and engineer (b. 1932)
  • 1992 – Angela Carter, English novelist, short story writer (b. 1940)
  • 1992 – Jânio Quadros, Brazilian politician, 22nd President of Brazil (b. 1917)
  • 1992 – Herman Wold, Norwegian-Swedish economist and statistician (b. 1908)
  • 1996 – Roberto Aizenberg, Argentinian painter and sculptor (b. 1922)
  • 1996 – Roger Bowen, American actor and author (b. 1932)
  • 1996 – Pat Brown, American lawyer and politician, 32nd Governor of  (b. 1905)
  • 1996 – Brownie McGhee, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (b. )
  •  – Chien-Shiung Wu, Chinese-American physicist and academic (b. 1912)
  • 1998 – Mary Amdur, American toxicologist and public health researcher (b. 1908)
  •  – Marceline Day, American actress (b. 1908)
  • 2000 – Lila Kedrova, Russian-French actress and singer
  • 2000 – Karsten Solheim, Norwegian-American businessman, founded PING (b. 1911)
  •  – Howard W. Koch, American director and producer (b. 1916)
  • 2001 – William Masters, American gynecologist and sexologist (b. 1915)
  • 2002 – Walter Winterbottom, English footballer and manager (b. )
  • 2003 – Rusty Magee, American actor and composer (b. )
  • 2004 – Doris Troy, American singer-songwriter (b. 1937)
  • 2006 – Johnny Grunge, (b. )
  • 2006 – Ernie Stautner, German-American football player and coach (b. )
  • 2009 – Stephen Kim Sou-hwan, South Korean cardinal (b. 1921)
  • 2011 – Len Lesser, American actor (b. 1922)
  • 2011 – Justinas Marcinkevičius, Lithuanian poet and playwright (b. )
  • 2012 – Gary Carter, American baseball player and coach (b. 1954)
  • 2012 – Elyse Knox, American model, actress, and fashion designer (b. 1917)
  • 2012 – John Macionis, American swimmer and lieutenant (b. 1916)
  • 2012 – Anthony Shadid, American journalist (b. 1968)
  • 2013 – Colin Edwards, Guyanese footballer (b. 1991)
  • 2013 – Grigory Pomerants, Russian philosopher and author (b. 1918)
  • 2013 – Tony Sheridan, English singer-songwriter and guitarist (b. 1940)
  • 2014 – Ken Farragut, American football player (b. 1928)
  • 2014 – Gert Krawinkel, German guitarist (b. 1947)
  • 2014 – Michael Shea, American author (b. )
  • 2015 – Lasse Braun, Algerian-Italian director, producer, and screenwriter (b. 1936)
  • 2015 – Lesley Gore, American singer-songwriter (b. 1946)
  • 2015 – R. R. Patil, Indian lawyer and politician, Deputy Chief Minister of Maharashtra (b. 1957)
  • 2015 – Lorena Rojas, Mexican actress and singer (b. 1971)
  • 2016 – Boutros Boutros-Ghali, Egyptian politician and diplomat, 6th Secretary-General of the  (b. 1922)
  • 2019 – Bruno Ganz, Swiss actor (b. 1941)

Holidays and observances on February 16

  • Christian feast day:
    • Abda of Edessa
    • Elias and companions
    • Juliana of Nicomedia ()
    • Onesimus
    • Charles Todd Quintard (Episcopal Church ())
    • February 16 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)
  • Day of the Shining Star (Kim Jong-il’s Birthday) (North Korea)
  • Restoration of Lithuania’s Statehood Day, celebrate the independence of Lithuania from Russia and Germany in 1918 (Lithuania)
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