Answering Exams

January 6 – History, Events, Births, Deaths, Holidays and Observances On This Day

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  •  – Following the death of Edward the Confessor on the previous day, the Witan meets to confirm Harold Godwinson as the new King of England; Harold is crowned the same day, sparking a succession crisis that will eventually lead to the Norman conquest of England.
  •  – Philip of Swabia undergoes a second coronation as King of the Romans.
  •  – Stephen Uroš III is crowned King of , having defeated his half-brother Stefan Konstantin in battle. His son is crowned “young king” in the same ceremony.
  •  – Charles IV of Bohemia is crowned with the Iron Crown of Lombardy as King of  in Milan.
  •  – Constantine XI is crowned Byzantine  at Mystras.
  •  – The Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand and Isabella enter Granada at the conclusion of the Granada War.
  •  – The first school of higher learning in the Americas, Colegio de Santa Cruz de Tlatelolco, is founded by Viceroy Antonio de Mendoza and Bishop Juan de Zumárraga in .
  •  – King Henry VIII of England marries Anne of Cleves.
  •  – The Union of Arras unites the under the Duke of Parma (Ottavio Farnese), in the name of King Philip II of .
  •  – Arauco War: The first Parliament of Quillín is celebrated, putting a temporary hold on hostilities between Mapuches and Spanish in .
  •  –  Restoration: The Fifth Monarchists unsuccessfully attempt to seize control of London, England. The revolt is suppressed after a few days.
  •  – The Committee of Inquiry on the South Sea Bubble publishes its findings, revealing details of fraud among company directors and corrupt .
  •  – In the Battle of Jersey, the British defeat the last attempt by to invade Jersey in the Channel Islands.
  •  – Combined British, Portuguese and colonial Brazilian forces begin the Invasion of Cayenne during the Napoleonic Wars.
  •  – Alfred Vail and colleagues demonstrate a telegraph system using dots and dashes (this is the forerunner of Morse code).
  •  – The Night of the Big Wind, the most damaging storm in 300 years, sweeps across Ireland, damaging or destroying more than 20% of the houses in Dublin.
  •  – Samuel Colt obtains his first contract for the sale of revolver pistols to the government.
  •  – The inauguration of the Musikverein in Vienna, .
  •  – The Washington National Cathedral is chartered by Congress. The charter is signed by  Benjamin Harrison.
  •  – Second Boer War: Having already besieged the fortress at Ladysmith, Boer forces attack it, but are driven back by British defenders.
  • – Maria Montessori opens her first school and daycare center for working-class children in Rome, Italy.
  •  – New  is admitted to the Union as the 47th U.S. state.
  • 1912 –  geophysicist Alfred Wegener first presents his theory of continental drift.
  •  – King Alexander of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes suspends his ’s constitution (the January 6th Dictatorship).
  • 1929 – Mother Teresa arrives by sea in , , to begin her work among ’s poorest and sick people.
  •  – The first diesel-powered automobile trip is completed, from Indianapolis, Indiana, to , .
  •  – United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt delivers his Four Freedoms speech in the State of the Union address.
  •  – The first election ever in  is held.
  • – Pan American Airlines becomes the first commercial airline to offer a round-the- ticket.
  •  – The recognizes the People’s Republic of . The Republic of  severs diplomatic relations with the in response.
  •  – : Beginning of the Ganghwa massacre, in the course of which an estimated 200–1,300 South communist sympathizers are slaughtered.
  •  – National Airlines Flight 2511 is destroyed in mid-air by a bomb, while en route from New York City to Miami.
  • 1960 – The Associations  comes into force in Iraq, allowing registration of political parties
  •  – : United States Marine Corps and ARVN troops launch “Operation Deckhouse Five” in the Mekong River delta.
  •  – In response to the  oil crisis, daylight saving time commences nearly four months early in the United States.
  •  – Satwant Singh and Kehar Singh are sentenced to death for conspiracy in the assassination of Prime Minister ; the two men are executed the same day.
  •  – President of  Zviad Gamsakhurdia flees the country as a result of the military coup.
  •  – Indian Border Security Force units kill 55 Kashmiri civilians in Sopore, Jammu and Kashmir, in revenge after militants ambushed a BSF patrol.
  •  – American figure skater Nancy Kerrigan is attacked and injured by an assailant hired by her rival Tonya Harding’s ex-husband during the U.S. Figure Skating Championships that they were both taking part in.
  •  – A chemical fire in an apartment complex in Manila, , leads to the discovery of plans for Project Bojinka, a mass-terrorist attack.
  •  – American Civil Rights Movement: Edgar Ray Killen is indicted for the  murders of Chaney, Goodman, and Schwerner.
  • 2005 – A train collision in Graniteville, , United States, releases about 60 tons of chlorine gas.
  •  – Twenty-six people are killed and 63 wounded when a suicide bomber blows himself up at a police station in Damascus.
  •  – Five people are killed and six others injured in a mass shooting at Fort Lauderdale– Airport in Broward County, Florida.
  •  – Forty people are killed in a gold mine collapse in northern Afghanistan.

Births on January 6

  •  – Gertrude the Great, German mystic (d. )
  •  – Richard II of England (d. )
  •  – Edmund Holland, 4th Earl of Kent (d. )
  •  – Joan of Arc, French martyr and saint (d. )
  •  – Martin Agricola, and theorist (d. )
  •  – Helius Eobanus Hessus, German poet (d. 1540)
  •  – Olaus Petri, Swedish clergyman (d. )
  •  – John of Ávila, Spanish mystic and saint (d. )
  •  – Caspar Peucer, German physician and scholar (d. )
  • – Jane Dormer, Duchess of Feria (d. )
  •  – Thomas Fincke, Danish mathematician and physicist (d. )
  • – Gaspar de Guzmán, Count-Duke of Olivares (d. )
  •  – Claude Favre de Vaugelas, French educator and courtier (d. )
  •  – Christoffer Gabel, Danish politician (d. )
  •  – Anne Hamilton, 3rd Duchess of Hamilton, Scottish peeress (d. )
  •  – Eleonor Magdalene of Neuburg (d. )
  • 1673 – James Brydges, 1st Duke of Chandos, English academic and politician, Lord Lieutenant of Radnorshire (d. )
  •  – Giuseppe Sammartini, Italian oboe player and composer (d. )
  •  – José de Nebra, Spanish composer (d. )
  •  – Percivall Pott, English surgeon (d. )
  •  – Jacques-Etienne Montgolfier, French co-inventor of the hot air balloon (d. )
  •  – José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia, Paraguayan lawyer and politician, first dictator of Paraguay (d. )
  • – Andreas Moustoxydis, Greek historian and philologist (d. )
  •  – James Madison Porter, American lawyer and politician, 18th United States Secretary of War (d. )
  •  – Anselme Payen, French chemist and academic (d. )
  • 1799 – Jedediah Smith, American hunter, explorer, and author (d. )
  • – Henri Herz, Austrian pianist and composer (d. )
  •  – Joseph Petzval, German-Hungarian mathematician and physicist (d. )
  •  – Joseph Pitty Couthouy, American conchologist and paleontologist (d. )
  •  – Charles Sumner, American lawyer and politician (d. )
  •  – Heinrich Schliemann, German archaeologist and businessman (d. )
  •  – Gustave Doré, French painter and sculptor (d. )
  • 1838 –  Bruch, German composer and conductor (d. )
  •  – Clarence King, American geologist, mountaineer, and critic (d. )
  •  – Giuseppe Martucci, Italian pianist, composer, and conductor (d. )
  •  – Hugh Mahon, Irish-Australian publisher and politician, 10th Australian Minister for Foreign Affairs (d. )
  • 1857 – William Russell, American lawyer and politician, 37th Governor of Massachusetts (d. )
  •  – Samuel Alexander, Australian-English philosopher and academic (d. )
  •  – Victor Horta, Belgian architect, designed Hôtel van Eetvelde (d. 1947)
  • 1861 – George Lloyd, English-Canadian bishop and theologian (d. )
  • 1870 – Gustav Bauer, German and politician, 11th Chancellor of  (d. )
  •  – Alexander Scriabin, Russian pianist and composer (d. )
  • 1874 – Fred Niblo, American , director, and (d. )
  •  – Adeline Genée, Danish-born British ballerina (d. )
  • 1878 – Carl Sandburg, American poet and historian (d. 1967)
  •  – Tom Mix, American cowboy and actor (d. 1940)
  •  – Ion Minulescu, Romanian author, poet, and critic (d. 1944)
  •  – Fan S. Noli, Albanian-American bishop and politician, 13th Prime Minister of Albania (d. )
  • 1882 – Sam Rayburn, American lawyer and politician, 48th Speaker of the United States House of Representatives (d. )
  • 1883 – Kahlil Gibran, Lebanese-American poet, painter, and philosopher (d. 1931)
  •  – James Fitzmaurice, Irish soldier and pilot (d. 1965)
  •  – Heinrich Nordhoff, German engineer (d. )
  • 1900 – Maria of Yugoslavia, Queen of Yugoslavia from to (d. 1961)
  •  – Maurice Abravanel, Greek-American pianist and conductor (d. 1993)
  •  – Wright Morris, American author and photographer (d. )
  • 1910 – Yiannis Papaioannou, Greek composer and educator (d. 1989)
  • 1912 – Jacques Ellul, French philosopher and critic (d. 1994)
  • 1912 – Danny Thomas, , comedian, producer and humanitarian (d. )
  • – Edward Gierek, Polish lawyer and politician (d. )
  • 1913 – Loretta Young, American actress (d. )
  •  – Godfrey Edward Arnold, Austrian-American physician and academic (d. 1989)
  • 1915 – Don Edwards, American soldier, lawyer, and politician (d. )
  • 1915 – John C. Lilly, American psychoanalyst, physician, and philosopher (d. 2001)
  • 1915 – Alan Watts, English-American philosopher and author (d. 1973)
  • – Park Mok-wol, influential Korean poet and academic (d. )
  •  – Koo Chen-fu, Taiwanese businessman and diplomat (d. 2005)
  • 1920 – John Maynard Smith, and geneticist (d. )
  • 1920 – Sun Myung Moon, Korean religious leader; founder of the Unification Church (d. 2012)
  • 1920 – Early Wynn, American baseball player, coach, and sportscaster (d. 1)
  •  – Marianne Grunberg-Manago, Russian-French biochemist and academic (d. )
  • 1921 – Cary Middlecoff, American golfer and sportscaster (d. 1998)
  •  – Vladimir Kazantsev, Russian runner (d. )
  • 1923 – Norman Kirk, engineer and politician, 29th Prime Minister of  (d. 1974)
  • 1923 – Jacobo Timerman, Argentinian journalist and author (d. )
  •  – Kim Dae-jung, South Korean soldier and politician, 8th President of South  laureate (d. )
  • 1924 – Earl Scruggs, American banjo player (d. 2012)
  •  – John DeLorean, American engineer and businessman, founded the DeLorean Motor Company (d. 2005)
  •  – Ralph Branca, American baseball player (d. )
  • 1926 – Mickey Hargitay, Hungarian-American actor and bodybuilder (d. )
  •  – Jesse Leonard Steinfeld, American physician and academic, 11th Surgeon General of the United States (d. )
  •  – Capucine, French actress and model (d. )
  • 1931 – E. L. Doctorow, American novelist, playwright, and short story writer (d. 2015)
  • 1931 – Graeme Hole, Australian (d. 1990)
  • 1931 – Dickie Moore, Canadian ice player and businessman (d. 2015)
  •  – Stuart A. Rice, American chemist and academic
  •  – Oleg Grigoryevich Makarov, Russian engineer and astronaut (d. )
  • 1934 – Sylvia Syms, English actress
  •  – Nino Tempo, American musician, singer, and actor
  •  – Darlene Hard, American player
  • 1936 – Julio María Sanguinetti, Uruguayan journalist, lawyer and politician, 29th President of Uruguay
  •  – Ludvík Daněk, Czech discus thrower (d. 1998)
  • 1937 – Lou Holtz, American football player, coach, and sportscaster
  • 1937 – Doris Troy, American singer-songwriter (d. 2004)
  • 1938 – Adriano Celentano, Italian singer-songwriter, actor, and director
  • 1938 – Adrienne Clarke, Australian botanist and academic
  • 1938 – Larisa Shepitko, Soviet film director, screenwriter, and actress (d. )
  •  – Valeriy Lobanovskyi, Ukrainian footballer and manager (d. )
  • 1939 – Murray Rose, English-Australian swimmer and sportscaster (d. 2012)
  • 1940 – Van McCoy, American singer-songwriter and producer (d. 1979)
  •  – Terry Venables, and manager
  • 1944 – Bonnie Franklin, American actress and singer (d. 2013)
  • 1944 – Alan Stivell, French singer-songwriter and harp player
  • 1944 – Rolf M. Zinkernagel, Swiss immunologist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate
  •  – Barry John, Welsh rugby player
  • 1946 – Syd Barrett, English singer-songwriter and guitarist (d. 2006)
  • 1947 – Sandy Denny, English folk-rock singer-songwriter (d 1978)
  • 1948 – Guy Gardner, American colonel and astronaut
  • 1948 – Dayle Hadlee, New Zealand cricketer
  •  – Mike Boit, Kenyan runner and academic (estimated date)
  • 1949 – Carolyn D. Wright, American poet and academic (d. 2016)
  • 1950 – Louis Freeh, American lawyer and jurist, 10th Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation
  • 1951 – Don Gullett, American baseball player and coach
  • 1951 – Kim Wilson, American singer-songwriter and harmonica player
  •  – Malcolm Young, Scottish-Australian singer-songwriter, guitarist, and producer (d. 2017)
  •  – Anthony Minghella, English director and screenwriter (d. )
  •  – Rowan Atkinson, English actor, producer, and screenwriter
  •  – Elizabeth Strout, American novelist and short story writer
  • 1956 – Justin Welby, English archbishop
  • 1956 – Clive Woodward, English rugby player and coach
  •  – Michael Foale, British-American astrophysicist and astronaut
  • 1957 – Nancy Lopez, American golfer and sportscaster
  •  – Kapil Dev, Indian cricketer
  • 1960 – Paul Azinger, American golfer and sportscaster
  • 1960 – Kari Jalonen, Finnish ice hockey player and coach
  • 1960 – Nigella Lawson, English chef and author
  • 1960 – Howie Long, American football player and commentator
  • 1961 – Georges Jobé, Belgian motocross racer (d. 2012)
  • 1961 – Peter Whittle, British politician, author, journalist and broadcaster
  •  – Norm Charlton, American baseball player and coach
  • 1963 – Paul Kipkoech, Kenyan runner (d. 1995)
  • 1964 – Jacqueline Moore, and manager
  • 1965 – Bjørn Lomborg, Danish author and academic
  •  – Sharon Cuneta, Filipino singer and actress
  • 1966 – Attilio Lombardo, Italian footballer and manager
  • 1967 – A. R. Rahman, Indian composer, singer-songwriter, music producer, musician and philanthropist
  • 1968 – John Singleton, American director, producer, and screenwriter (d. 2019)
  •  – Norman Reedus, American actor and model
  • 1970 – Julie Chen, American television journalist, presenter, and producer
  • 1970 – Radoslav Látal, Czech footballer and manager
  • 1973 – Vasso Karantasiou, Greek beach volleyball player
  •  – Richard Zedník, Slovak ice hockey player
  • – Asante Samuel, American football player
  •  – Eddie Redmayne, English actor and model
  •  – Kate McKinnon, American actress and comedian
  •  – Paul McShane, Irish footballer
  • 1986 – Petter Northug, Norwegian skier
  • 1989 – Andy Carroll, English footballer
  • 1991 – Will Barton, American basketball player
  • 1994 – Lim Jae-beom, South Korean singer and actor (Got7)

Deaths on January 6

  •  – Abo of Tiflis, Iraqi martyr and saint (b. )
  •  – Berengar of Tours, French scholar and theologian (b. 999)
  • – Gilbert de Clare, 1st Earl of Pembroke (b. )
  •  – Matilda of Chester, Countess of Huntingdon, Anglo-Norman noblewoman (b. )
  •  – Raymond of Penyafort, Catalan archbishop and saint (b. )
  •  – Giovanni I di Murta, second doge of the Republic of Genoa
  •  – Gertrude van der Oosten, Beguine mystic
  •  – Roger Walden, English bishop
  •  – Christopher of , King of Denmark, Norway and (b. )
  •  – Jean VIII, Count of Vendôme
  •  – Ahmed Khan bin Küchük, Mongolian ruler
  •  – Alessandro de’ Medici, Duke of Florence (b. )
  • 1537 – Baldassare Peruzzi, Italian architect and painter, designed the Palazzo Massimo alle Colonne (b. 1481)
  •  – Philip Henslowe, English impresario (b. )
  •  – Elias Holl, German architect, designed the Augsburg Town Hall (b. )
  •  – Seth Ward, English bishop, mathematician, and astronomer (b. 1617)
  •  – Mehmed IV, Ottoman sultan (b. )
  •  – Philips van Almonde, admiral (b. 1646)
  •  – Giovanni Vincenzo Gravina, Italian lawyer and jurist (b. )
  •  – Chikamatsu Monzaemon, actor and playwright (b. )
  •  – Étienne François Geoffroy, French physician and chemist (b. )
  •  – John Dennis, English playwright and critic (b. )
  •  – Louis Baraguey d’Hilliers, French general (b. )
  •  – Josef Dobrovský, Czech philologist and historian (b. )
  • 1831 – Rodolphe Kreutzer, French violinist, composer, and conductor (b. 1766)
  • 1840 – Frances Burney, English author and playwright (b. )
  •  – Louis Braille, French educator, invented Braille (b. 1809)
  •  – Giacomo Beltrami, Italian jurist, explorer, and author (b. )
  • 1882 – Richard Henry Dana, Jr., American lawyer and politician (b. )
  • – Gregor Mendel, Czech geneticist and botanist (b. 1822)
  •  – Bharatendu Harishchandra, Indian author, poet, and playwright (b. )
  • 1896 – Thomas W. Knox, American journalist and author (b. )
  •  – Lars Hertervig, Norwegian painter (b. )
  • 1913 – Frederick Hitch, English soldier, Victoria Cross recipient (b. 1856)
  • 1917 – Hendrick Peter Godfried Quack, Dutch economist and historian (b. )
  •  – Georg Cantor, German mathematician and philosopher (b. )
  •  – Theodore Roosevelt, American colonel and politician, 26th President of the United States (b. )
  • 1921 – Devil Anse Hatfield, American guerrilla leader (b. 1839)
  • 1922 – Jakob Rosanes, Ukrainian-German mathematician and chess player (b. 1842)
  • 1928 – Alvin Kraenzlein, American hurdler and long jumper (b. )
  • 1933 – Vladimir de Pachmann, Ukrainian-German pianist (b. )
  • 1934 – Herbert Chapman, English footballer and manager (b. 1878)
  • 1937 – André Bessette, Canadian saint (b. 1845)
  • 1939 – Gustavs Zemgals, Latvian journalist and politician, 2nd President of Latvia (b. 1871)
  • 1941 – Charley O’Leary, American baseball player and coach (b. 1882)
  •  – Emma Calvé, French soprano and actress (b. 1858)
  • 1942 – Henri de Baillet-Latour, Belgian businessman, 3rd President of the International Olympic Committee (b. 1876)
  • 1944 – Jacques Rosenbaum, Estonian-German architect (b. 1878)
  • 1944 – Ida Tarbell, American journalist, reformer, and educator (b. 1857)
  • 1945 – Vladimir Vernadsky, Russian mineralogist and chemist (b. )
  • 1949 – Victor Fleming, American director, producer, and cinematographer (b. 1883)
  • 1966 – Jean Lurçat, French painter (b. )
  •  – Chen Yi, general and politician, 2nd Foreign Minister of the People’s Republic of China (b. 1901)
  • 1974 – David Alfaro Siqueiros, Mexican painter (b. 1896)
  • 1978 – Burt Munro, New Zealand motorcycle racer (b. 1899)
  • 1981 – A. J. Cronin, Scottish physician and author (b. 1896)
  • 1984 – Ernest Laszlo, Hungarian-American cinematographer (b. 1898)
  • 1990 – Ian Charleson, Scottish-English actor (b. 1949)
  • 1990 – Pavel Cherenkov, Russian physicist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate (b. )
  • 1993 – Dizzy Gillespie, American singer-songwriter and trumpet player (b. 1917)
  • 1993 – Rudolf Nureyev, Russian-French dancer and choreographer (b. 1938)
  • 1995 – Joe Slovo, Lithuanian-South African lawyer and politician (b. 1926)
  • 1999 – Michel Petrucciani, French-American pianist (b. )2000 – Don Martin, American cartoonist (b. 1931)
  • 2004 – Pierre Charles, Dominican educator and politician, 5th Prime Minister of Dominica (b. 1954)
  • 2004 – Francesco Scavullo, American photographer (b. 1921)
  • 2005 – Eileen Desmond, Irish civil servant and politician, 12th Irish Minister for Health (b. 1932)
  • 2005 – Lois Hole, Canadian academic and politician, 15th Lieutenant Governor of Alberta (b. 1929)
  • 2005 – Tarquinio Provini, Italian motorcycle racer (b. 1933)
  • 2005 – Louis Robichaud, Canadian lawyer and politician, 25th Premier of New Brunswick (b. 1925)
  • 2006 – Lou Rawls, American singer-songwriter (b. 1933)
  • 2007 – Roberta Wohlstetter, American political , historian, and academic (b. 1912)
  • 2008 – Shmuel Berenbaum, Rabbi of Mir Yeshiva (Brooklyn)
  • 2009 – Ron Asheton, American guitarist, songwriter, and actor (probable; b. 1948)
  •  – Uche Okafor, Nigerian footballer, coach, and sportscaster (b. 1967)
  • 2012 – Bob Holness, South African-English and television host (b. 1928)
  • 2012 – Spike Pola, Australian footballer and soldier (b. 1914)
  • 2013 – Qazi Hussain Ahmad, Pakistani scholar and politician (b. 1938)
  • 2013 – Ruth Carter Stevenson, American collector, founded the Amon Carter Museum of American  (b. 1923)
  • 2013 – Gerard Helders, Dutch jurist and politician (b. )
  • 2013 – Cho Sung-min, South Korean baseball player (b. 1973)
  • 2014 – Marina Ginestà, French Resistance soldier and photographer (b. 1919)
  • 2014 –  Ned, Brazilian singer-songwriter (b. 1947)
  • 2014 – Julian Rotter, American psychologist and academic (b. 1916)
  • 2015 – Arthur Jackson, American lieutenant and target shooter (b. 1918)
  • 2015 – Basil John Mason, English meteorologist and academic (b. 1923)
  • 2016 – Pat Harrington, Jr., American actor and screenwriter (b. 1929)
  • 2016 – Florence King, American journalist and author (b. 1936)
  • 2016 – Christy O’Connor Jnr, Irish golfer and architect (b. 1948)
  • 2016 – Silvana Pampanini, Italian model, actress, and director, Miss Italy 1946 (b. 1925)
  • 2017 – Octavio Lepage, Venezuelan politician, President of Venezuela (b. 1923)
  • 2017 – Om Puri, Indian actor (b. 1950)
  • 2019 – José Ramón Fernández, Cuban revolution leader (b. 1923)
  • 2019 – Lamin Sanneh, Gambian-born American (b. 1942)
  • 2019 – W. Morgan Sheppard, British actor (b. 1932)
  • 2019 – Paul Streeten, Austrian-born British economics professor (b. 1917)

Holidays and observances on January 6

  • Armed Forces Day (Iraq)
  • Christian Feast day:
    • André Bessette (Roman )
    • January 6 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)
  • Epiphany or Three Kings’ Day (Western ) or Theophany (Eastern ), and its related observances:
    • Befana Day (Italy)
    • Christmas (Armenian Apostolic Church)
    • Christmas Eve ()
    • Christmas Eve (Ukraine)
    • Christmas Eve (Bosnia and Herzegovina)
    • Christmas Eve (North Macedonia)
    • Little Christmas (Ireland)
    • Þrettándinn (Iceland)
    • Three Wise Men Day
  • Pathet Lao Day (Laos)
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