Answering Exams

January 2 – History, Events, Births, Deaths, Holidays and Observances On This Day

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  •  – The Alemanni cross the frozen Rhine in large numbers, invading the Roman Empire.
  • 5 – Mercurius becomes Pope John II, the first pope to adopt a new name upon elevation to the papacy.
  •  – Reconquista: The Emirate of Granada, the last Moorish stronghold in , surrenders.
  •  – Trunajaya rebellion: Amangkurat II of Mataram and his bodyguards execute the rebel leader Trunajaya. a month after the rebel leader was captured by the  East Company.
  •  – American Revolutionary War: American forces under the command of George Washington repulsed a British attack at the Battle of the Assunpink Creek near Trenton, New Jersey.
  •  –  becomes the fourth state to ratify the  Constitution.
  •  – Big Bottom massacre in the  , , marking the beginning of the Northwest Indian War.
  •  – The British Institution of Civil Engineers is founded by a group of six engineers; Thomas Telford would later become its first .
  •  – Captain James Onslow, in the Clio, arrives at Port Egmont to reassert British sovereignty over the Falkland Islands.
  •  – Uruguayan War: The Siege of Paysandú ends as the Brazilians and Coloradans capture Paysandú, Uruguay.
  •  – American statesman and diplomat John Hay announces the Open Door Policy to promote trade with .
  •  – The second Palmer Raid, ordered by the  Department of Justice, results in 6,000 suspected communists and anarchists being arrested and held without trial.
  •  –  bombing severely damages the Llandaff Cathedral in Cardiff, Wales, .
  •  – The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) obtains the conviction of 33 members of a German spy ring headed by Fritz Joubert Duquesne in the largest espionage case in United States history—the Duquesne Spy Ring.
  • 1942 – War II: Manila is captured by forces, enabling them to control the .
  • 1 – Luis Muñoz Marín is inaugurated as the first democratically elected  of Puerto Rico.
  •  – India establishes its highest civilian , the Bharat Ratna and the Padma Vibhushan.
  •  – Following the assassination of the Panamanian president José Antonio Remón Cantera, his deputy, José Ramón Guizado, takes power, but is quickly deposed after his involvement in Cantera’s death is discovered.
  •  – Luna 1, the first spacecraft to reach the vicinity of the Moon and to orbit the Sun, is launched by the .
  •  – : The Viet Cong wins its first major victory, at the Battle of Ap Bac.
  •  – Ronald Reagan, past movie  and future President of the United States, is sworn in as Governor of .
  •  – The second Ibrox disaster kills 66 fans at a Rangers-Celtic association football (soccer) match.
  •  – United States President  signs a bill lowering the maximum U.S. speed limit to 55 MPH in order to conserve gasoline during an OPEC embargo.
  •  – At the opening of a new railway line, a bomb blast at Samastipur, Bihar, India, fatally wounds Lalit Narayan Mishra, Minister of Railways.
  • 1975 – The Federal Rules of Evidence are approved by the United States Congress.
  •  – The Gale of January  begins, resulting in coastal flooding around the southern North Sea coasts, affecting from Ireland to Yugoslavia and causing at least 82 deaths and US$1.3 billion in damage.
  •  – On the orders of the President of Zia-ul-Haq, paramilitary forces opened fire on peaceful protesting workers in Multan, Pakistan; it is known as  massacre at Multan Colony Textile Mills.
  •  – One of the largest investigations by a British police force ends when serial killer Peter Sutcliffe, the “Yorkshire Ripper”, is arrested in Sheffield, South Yorkshire.
  •  – Sharon Pratt Kelly becomes the first African American woman mayor of a major city and first woman Mayor of the District of Columbia.
  •  – Sri Lankan Civil War: The  Navy kill 35–100 civilians on the Jaffna Lagoon.
  •  – Stardust successfully flies past Comet Wild 2, collecting samples that are returned to Earth.

Births on January 2

  •  – Yōzei, Japanese emperor (d. 949)
  •  – Piero di Cosimo, Italian painter (d. )
  •  – Henry of Stolberg, German nobleman (d. )
  •  – Mehmed IV, Ottoman sultan (d. )
  •  – Nathaniel Bacon, -American rebel leader (d. )
  •  – Osman III, Ottoman sultan (d. )
  •  – Marie Dumesnil, French actress (d. )
  •  – James Wolfe, English (d. )
  •  – František Brixi, Czech organist and composer (d. )
  • 1777 – Christian Daniel Rauch, German sculptor and educator (d. )
  • 1803 – Guglielmo Libri Carucci dalla Sommaja, Italian mathematician and academic (d. )
  •  – Rudolf Clausius, Polish-German physicist and mathematician (d. )
  •  – Pyotr Semyonov-Tyan-Shansky, Russian geographer and statistician (d. )
  • 1833 – Frederick A. Johnson, American banker and politician (d. )
  •  – Mendele Mocher Sforim, Russian author (d. )
  • 1836 – Queen Emma of Hawaii (d. )
  •  – Mily Balakirev, Russian pianist and composer (d. )
  • 1857 – M. Carey Thomas, American educator and activist (d. )
  •  – Dugald Campbell Patterson, Canadian engineer (d. )
  • 1860 – William Corless Mills, American historian and curator (d. )
  •  – Gilbert Murray, Australian-English playwright and scholar (d. )
  •  – Ernst Barlach, German sculptor and playwright (d. )
  • 1870 – Tex Rickard, American boxing promoter and businessman (d. )
  •  – Antonie Pannekoek, Dutch astronomer and theorist (d. )
  • 1873 – Thérèse of Lisieux, French nun and saint (d. )
  •  – Mannathu Padmanabha Pillai, Indian activist, founded the Nair Service Society (d. )
  •  – Ben-Zion Dinur, Russian-Israeli historian and politician, 4th Israeli Minister of Education (d. )
  • 1885 – Gordon Flowerdew, Canadian lieutenant, Victoria Cross recipient (d. )
  •  – Apsley Cherry-Garrard, English explorer and author (d. 1959)
  •  – Bertram Stevens, Australian accountant and politician, 25th Premier of New South Wales (d. 1973)
  •  – Giovanni Michelucci, Italian architect and urban planner, designed the Firenze Santa Maria Novella railway station (d. )
  •  – Seiichiro Kashio, Japanese player (d. )
  • 1892 – Artur Rodziński, Polish-American conductor (d. )
  •  – Folke Bernadotte, Swedish diplomat (d. )
  •  – Dziga Vertov, Polish-Russian director and screenwriter (d. 1954)
  • 1896 – Lawrence Wackett, Australian commander and engineer (d. )
  • 1897 – Theodore Plucknett, English legal historian (d. )
  • 1900 – Una Ledingham, British physician, known for research on diabetes in pregnancy (d. 1965)
  •  – Bob Marshall, American activist, co-founded The Wilderness Society (d. )
  •  – Dan Keating, Irish Army volunteer (d. )
  •  – Kane Tanaka, Japanese supercentenarian, oldest verified living person
  •  – Walter Heitler, German physicist and chemist (d. 1981)
  •  – Luigi Zampa, Italian director and screenwriter (d. 1991)
  • 1905 – Michael Tippett, English composer and conductor (d. )
  •  – Barry Goldwater, American politician, businessman, and author (d. 1998)
  • 1909 – Riccardo Cassin, Italian mountaineer and author (d. )[
  •  – Anna Lee, English-American actress (d. 2004)[79]
  • 1913 – Juanita Jackson Mitchell, American lawyer and activist (d. )
  • 1917 – Vera Zorina, German-Norwegian actress and dancer (d. )
  • 1918 – Willi Graf, German physician and activist (d. )
  •  – Beatrice Hicks, American engineer (d. )
  • 1920(probable) – Isaac Asimov, American writer and of biochemistry (d. 1992)
  •  – Glen Harmon, Canadian ice player (d. 2007)
  •  – Gino Marchetti, American football player (d. )
  • 1928 – Dan Rostenkowski, American politician (d. )
  • 1929 – Tellervo Koivisto, Finnish politician, former First Lady of Finland
  • 1931 – Toshiki Kaifu, Japanese lawyer and politician, 76th Prime Minister of
  •  – John Hollowbread, , goalkeeper (d. 2007)
  •  – Roger Miller, American singer-songwriter, musician, and actor (d. 1992)
  • 1938 – David Bailey, English photographer and painter
  • 1938 – Lynn Conway, American computer and electrical engineer
  • 1938 – Robert Smithson, American sculptor and photographer (d. 1973)
  •  – Jim Bakker, American televangelist
  • 1940 – Saud bin Faisal bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, Saudi Arabian economist and politician, Saudi Arabian Minister of Foreign Affairs (d. )
  • 1942 – Dennis Hastert, American educator and politician, 59th Speaker of the United States House of Representatives
  • 1942 – Thomas Hammarberg, Swedish lawyer and diplomat
  • 1943 – Janet Akyüz Mattei, Turkish-American astronomer (d. 2004)
  •  – Charlie Davis, Trinidadian
  • 1944 – Norodom Ranariddh, Cambodian field marshal and politician, 1st Prime Minister of Cambodia
  • 1944 – Péter Eötvös, Hungarian composer and conductor
  •  – Calvin Hill, American football player
  • 1947 – David Shapiro, American poet, historian, and critic
  • 1947 – Jack Hanna, American zoologist and author
  •  – Christopher Durang, American playwright and screenwriter
  • 1949 – Iris Marion Young, American political scientist and academic (d. )
  •  – Indulis Emsis, Latvian biologist and politician, 9th Prime Minister of Latvia
  • 1954 – Henry Bonilla, American broadcaster and politician
  • 1954 – Évelyne Trouillot, Haitian playwright and author
  • 1959 – Kirti Azad, Indian cricketer and politician
  •  – Craig James, American football player and sportscaster
  • 1961 – Gabrielle Carteris, American actress
  • 1961 – Paula Hamilton, English model
  • 1961 – Robert Wexler, American lawyer and politician
  • 1963 – David Cone, American baseball player and sportscaster
  • 1963 – Edgar Martínez, American baseball player
  •  – Pernell Whitaker, American boxer (d. 2019)
  • 1965 – Francois Pienaar, South African rugby player
  • 1967 – Jón Gnarr, Icelandic actor and politician; 20th Mayor of Reykjavik City
  • 1967 – Tia Carrere, American actress
  •  – Anky van Grunsven, Dutch dressage champion
  • 1968 – Cuba Gooding, Jr., and
  •  – Christy Turlington, American model
  • 1969 – István Bagyula, Hungarian pole vaulter
  • 1969 – William Fox-Pitt, English horse rider and
  • 1970 – Eric Whitacre, American composer and conductor
  • 1971 – Renée Elise Goldsberry, American actress
  • 1971 – Taye Diggs, American actor and singer
  •  – Mattias Norström, Swedish ice hockey player and manager
  • 1972 – Rodney MacDonald, Canadian educator and politician, 26th Premier of Nova Scotia
  • 1972 – Shiraz Minwalla, Indian theoretical physicist and string theorist
  • 1974 – Ludmila Formanová, Czech runner
  • 1974 – Tomáš Řepka, Czech footballer
  • 1975 – Reuben Thorne, rugby player
  •  – Brian Boucher, American ice hockey player and sportscaster
  • 1977 – Stefan Koubek, Austrian tennis player
  • 1979 – Jonathan Greening English footballer
  • 1981 – Maxi Rodríguez, Argentinian footballer
  •  – Kate Bosworth, American actress
  •  – Robert Milsom, English footballe
  •  – Damien Tussac, French-German rugby player
  • 1992 – Korbin Sims, Australian-Fijian rugby league player
  • 1992 – Paulo Gazzaniga, Argentinian footballer, goalkeeper
  • 1998 – Timothy Fosu-Mensah, Dutch footballer

Deaths on January 2

  •  – Liu Chengyou, Emperor Yin of the Later Han
  • 951 – Su Fengji, official and chancellor
  •  – William de St-Calais, Bishop of Durham and chief counsellor of William II of England[
  •  – Bertrand de Blanchefort, sixth Grand Master of the Knights Templar (b. c. ) – Theodora Komnene, Duchess of , daughter of Andronikos Komnenos
  •  – Lodomer, Hungarian prelate, Archbishop of Esztergom
  •  – Heinrich Reuß von Plauen, Grand Master of the Teutonic Order
  •  – Svante Nilsson, politician (b. )
  •  – William Smyth, English bishop and academic (b. 1460)
  •  – Francesco Canova da Milano, Italian composer (b. )
  •  – Pontormo, Italian painter and educator (b. )
  •  – Salima Sultan Begum, Empress of the (b. )
  •  – Luisa Carvajal y Mendoza, Spanish mystical poet and Catholic martyr (b. 1566)
  •  – Domenico Zipoli, Italian organist and composer (b. )
  •  – John Carteret, 2nd Earl Granville, English statesman (b. )
  •  – Manuel de la Peña y Peña, Mexican lawyer and 20th President () (b. )
  •  – Frederick William IV of  (b. )
  • 1892 – George Biddell Airy, English mathematician and astronomer (b. )
  • 1904 – James Longstreet, American general and diplomat (b. )
  • 1913 – Léon Teisserenc de Bort, French meteorologist (b. )
  •  – Karl Goldmark, Hungarian violinist and composer (b. )
  • 1917 – Léon Flameng, French cyclist (b. )
  • 1920 – Paul Adam, French author (b. )
  •  – Sabine Baring-Gould, English author and scholar (b. )
  • 1939 – Roman Dmowski, Polish politician, Polish Minister of Foreign Affairs (b. )
  • 1941 – Mischa Levitzki, Russian-American pianist and composer (b. )
  •  – Joe Darling, Australian cricketer and politician (b. 1870)
  •  – James Dooley, Irish-Australian politician, 21st Premier of New South Wales (b. 1877)
  •  – William Campion, English colonel and politician, 21st Governor of Western  (b. 1870)
  •  – Guccio Gucci, Italian businessman and fashion designer, founder of Gucci (b. )
  • 1960 – Paul Sauvé, Canadian lawyer and politician, 17th Premier of Quebec (b. )
  • 1963 – Dick Powell, American actor, singer, and director (b. 1904)
  • 1963 – Jack Carson, Canadian-American actor (b. 1910)
  • 1974 – Tex Ritter, American actor (b. 1905)
  • 1975 – Siraj Sikder, Bangladesh revolutionary leader (b. 1944)
  • 1977 – Erroll Garner, American pianist and composer (b. 1921)
  •  – Una Merkel, American actress (b. 1903)
  • 1987 – Harekrushna Mahatab, Indian journalist and politician, 1st Chief Minister of Odisha (b. )
  •  – Safdar Hashmi, Indian actor, director, and playwright (b. 1954)
  • 1990 – Alan Hale Jr., American film and television actor (b. 1921)
  • 1990 – Evangelos Averoff, Greek historian and politician, Greek Minister for National Defence (b. 1910)
  •  – Dixy Lee Ray, American biologist and politician; 17th Governor of Washington (b. 1914)
  • 1994 – Pierre-Paul Schweitzer, French lawyer and businessman (b. 1915)
  •  – Nancy Kelly, American actress (b. 1921)
  • 1995 – Siad Barre, Somalian general and politician; 3rd President of  (b. 1919)
  •  – Rolf Liebermann, Swiss-French composer and manager (b. 1910)
  • 1999 – Sebastian Haffner, German journalist and author (b. 1907)[
  •  – Elmo Zumwalt, American admiral (b. 1920)
  • 2000 – Patrick O’Brian, English author and translator (b. 1914)
  •  – William P. Rogers, American lieutenant, lawyer, and politician, 55th United States Secretary of State (b. 1913)
  •  – Maclyn McCarty, American geneticist and physician (b. )
  • 2006 – Cecilia Muñoz-Palma, Filipino lawyer and jurist (b. 1913)
  • 2006 – Osa Massen, Danish-American actress (b. 1914)
  • 2007 – A. Richard Newton, Australian-American engineer and academic (b. 1951)
  • 2007 – Elizabeth Fox-Genovese, American historian and author (b. 1941)
  • 2007 – Teddy Kollek, Hungarian-Israeli politician, Mayor of Jerusalem (b. 1911)
  •  – George MacDonald Fraser, Scottish journalist and author (b. )
  • 2008 – Lee S. Dreyfus, American sailor, academic, and politician, 40th Governor of Wisconsin (b. 1926)
  • 2009 – Inger Christensen, Danish poet and author (b. 1935)
  • 2009 – Dnyaneshwar Agashe, Indian businessman and cricketer (b. 1942)
  • 2010 – David R. Ross, Scottish historian and author (b. 1958)
  •  – Anne Francis, American actress (b. )
  • 2011 – Bali Ram Bhagat, Indian politician; 16th Governor of Rajasthan (b. )
  • 2011 – Pete Postlethwaite, English actor (b. 1946)
  •  – Gordon Hirabayashi, American-Canadian sociologist and academic (b. 1918)
  • 2012 – Silvana Gallardo, American actress and producer (b. 1953)
  • 2012 – William P. Carey, American businessman and philanthropist, founded W. P. Carey (b. 1930)
  •  – Gerda Lerner, Austrian-American historian, author, and academic (b. 1920)
  • 2013 – Teresa Torańska, Polish journalist and author (b. 1944)
  •  – Bernard Glasser, American director and producer (b. 1924)
  • 2014 – Elizabeth Jane Howard, English author and screenwriter (b. )
  • 2015 – Tihomir Novakov, Serbian-American physicist and academic (b. 1929)
  •  – Ardhendu Bhushan Bardhan, Indian lawyer and politician (b. 1924)
  • 2016 – Frances Cress Welsing, American psychiatrist and author (b. 1935)
  • 2016 – Nimr al-Nimr, Saudi Arabian religious leader (b. 1959)
  • 2016 – Gisela Mota Ocampo, mayor of Temixco, Morelos, , assassinated (b. 1982)
  •  – Jean Vuarnet, French ski racer (b. )
  • 2017 – John Berger, English critic, novelist and painter (b. 1926)
  •  – Guida Maria, Portuguese actress (b. 1950)
  • 2018 – Thomas S. Monson, American religious leader, 16th president of The Church of Christ of Latter-day  (b. )
  • 2019 – Daryl Dragon, American musician (b. 1942)
  • 2019 – Bob Einstein, American actor and comedian (b. 1942)
  • 2019 – Gene Okerlund, American wrestling announcer (b. 1942)

Holidays and observances on January 2

  • Ancestry Day (Haiti)
  • Berchtold’s Day ( and )
  • Carnival Day (Saint Kitts and Nevis)
  • Christian feast day:
    • Basil the Great ( and Church of England)
    • Defendens of Thebes
    • Earliest day on which the Feast of the Holy Name of Jesus is observed, while is the latest; celebrated on between January 2 and 5. (Roman Catholic Church, 1960 calendar)
    • Gregory of Nazianzus (Catholic Church)
    • Johann Konrad Wilhelm Löhe (Lutheran Church)
    • Macarius of Alexandria
    • Seraphim of Sarov (repose) (Eastern Orthodox Church)
    • Vedanayagam Samuel Azariah (Episcopal Church)
    • January 2 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)
  • Nyinlong ()
  • The first day of Blacks and Whites’ Carnival, celebrated until . (southern )
  • The first day of the Carnival of Riosucio, celebrated until every 2 years. (Riosucio)
  • The ninth of the Twelve Days of Christmas (Western )
  • The second day of New Year (a holiday in Kazakhstan, North Macedonia, Mauritius, , New Zealand, Romania, , Slovenia, Switzerland, Ukraine):
    • New Year Holiday (), if it is a Sunday, the day moves to 
    • Kaapse Klopse (Cape Town, South )
  • The victory of Armed Forces Day (Cuba)
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