Answering Exams

February 11 – History, Events, Births, Deaths, Holidays and Observances On This Day

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  • BC – Traditional date for the foundation of by  Jimmu.
  • AD 55 – The death under mysterious circumstances of Tiberius Claudius Caesar Britannicus, heir to the Roman empire, on the eve of his coming of age clears the way for Nero to become Emperor.
  •  – Henry VIII of England is recognized as supreme head of the Church of England.
  •  – The assault on Copenhagen by Swedish forces is beaten back with heavy losses.
  •  – First session of  Senate opens to the public.
  •  – Jesse Fell burns anthracite on an open grate as an experiment in heating homes with coal.
  •  – Massachusetts  Elbridge Gerry is accused of “gerrymandering” for the first time.
  •  – Carnival tragedy of : About 110 boys are killed during a stampede at the Convent of the Minori Osservanti in Valletta, .
  •  – University London is founded as University of London.
  •  – Gaetano DonizettiR;s opera La fille du régiment receives its first performance in Paris, .
  •  – Giuseppe Verdi’s opera I Lombardi alla prima crociata receives its first performance in Milan, .
  •  – Kassa Hailu is crowned Tewodros II, Emperor of .
  •  – The Kingdom of Awadh is annexed by the British  and Wajid Ali Shah, the king of Awadh, is deposed.
  •  – Bernadette Soubirous’s first vision of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Lourdes, France.
  •  – : The United States House of Representatives unanimously passes a resolution guaranteeing noninterference with slavery in any state.
  •  – King Amadeo I of  abdicates.
  •  – Meiji Constitution of Japan is adopted.
  •  – Anton Bruckner’s 9th Symphony receives its first performance in Vienna, .
  •  – Pope Pius X publishes the encyclical Vehementer Nos.
  •  – Friedrich Ebert (SPD), is elected  of .
  •  – Kingdom of Italy and the Vatican sign the Lateran Treaty.
  •  – The Flint sit-down strike ends when  Motors recognizes the United Auto Workers trade union.
  •  – BBC Television produces the ’s first ever  television programme, an adaptation of a section of the Karel Čapek play R.U.R., that coined the term “robot”.
  •  – : Second day of the Battle of Bukit Timah is fought in .
  •  – Cold War: U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower denies all appeals for clemency for Julius and Ethel Rosenberg.
  • 1953 – The  breaks off diplomatic relations with Israel.
  •  – The Federation of Arab Emirates of the South is created as a protectorate of the .
  •  – Japan launches Ohsumi, becoming the fourth nation to put an object into orbit using its own booster.
  •  – Cold War: the Seabed Arms Control Treaty opened for signature outlawing nuclear weapons on the ocean floor in  waters.
  •  – The  Revolution establishes an Islamic theocracy under the leadership of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini.
  •  –  Mandela is released from Victor Verster Prison outside Cape Town, South after 27 years as a political prisoner.
  • 1990 – Buster Douglas, a 42:1 underdog, knocks out Mike Tyson in ten rounds at Tokyo to win boxing’s world Heavyweight title.
  •  – Space Shuttle Discovery is launched on a mission to service the  Space Telescope.
  •  –  crosses Neptune’s orbit, ending a nearly 20-year period when it was closer to the Sun than the gas giant; is not expected to interact with Neptune’s orbit again until 2231.
  •  – A programmer launched the Anna Kournikova virus infecting millions of emails via a trick photo of the  star.
  •  – Rebel East Timorese soldiers seriously wound President José Ramos-Horta. Rebel leader Alfredo Reinado is killed in the attack.
  •  – Arab Spring: The first wave of the Egyptian revolution culminates in the resignation of Hosni Mubarak and the transfer of power to the Supreme Military Council after 17 days of protests.
  •  – The Vatican confirmed that Pope Benedict XVI would resign the papacy as a result of his advanced age.
  •  – A military transport plane crashes in a mountainous area of Oum El Bouaghi Province in eastern Algeria, killing 77 people.
  •  – A university student was murdered as she resisted an attempted rape in Turkey, sparking nationwide protests and public outcry against harassment and violence against .
  •  – A man shoots six people dead at an education center in Jizan Province, Saudi Arabia.
  •  – North   fires a ballistic missile across the Sea of Japan.
  •  – Saratov Airlines Flight  crashes near  with 71 deaths and no survivors.

Births on February 11

  •  – Poggio Bracciolini, Italian scholar and translator (d. )
  •  – Elizabeth of York (d. )
  •  – Pope Gregory XIV (d. )
  • 1568 – Honoré d’Urfé, French author and playwright (d. )
  •  – William Carstares, Scottish minister and academic (d. )
  •  – Bernard Le Bovier de Fontenelle, French poet and playwright (d. )
  •  – Egidio Duni, Italian composer (d. )
  •  – Joseph Chénier, French poet and playwright (d. )
  •  – Ioannis Kapodistrias, Greek politician, 1st Governor of  (d. )
  •  – Henry Fox Talbot, photographer and politician, invented the calotype (d. )
  •  – Lydia Maria Child, American , author, and activist (d. )
  •  – Jean Baptiste Charbonneau, Native American-French Canadian explorer (d. )
  • 1812 – Alexander H. Stephens, American lawyer and politician,  of the  (d. )
  •  – Otto Ludwig, author, playwright, and critic (d. )
  •  – Auguste Mariette, French archaeologist and scholar (d. )
  •  – Hans Bronsart von Schellendorff, Prussian pianist and composer (d. )
  •  – Melville Fuller, American lawyer and jurist, Chief Justice of the United States (d. )
  •  – Josiah Willard Gibbs, American physicist (d. 1903)
  •  – Ahmet Tevfik Pasha, Ottoman soldier and politician, Grand Vizier of the  (d. )
  •  – Thomas Edison, American engineer and businessman, developed the light bulb and phonograph (d. )
  • 1855 – Ellen Day Hale, American painter and author (b. 1855)
  •  – Rachilde, French author and playwright (d. 1953)
  •  – John F. Fitzgerald, American politician; Mayor of Boston (d. )
  •  – Louis Bouveault, French chemist (d. )
  •  – Helene Kröller-Müller, German-Dutch collector and philanthropist, founded the Kröller-Müller Museum (d. )
  • 1869 – Else Lasker-Schüler, German poet and author (d. )
  •  – Elsa Beskow, Swedish author and (d. 1953)
  • 1881 – Carlo Carrà, Italian painter (d. )
  •  – Emil Leon Post, Polish-American mathematician and logician (d.)
  •  – Leo Szilard, Hungarian-American physicist and academic (d. )
  •  – Ellen Broe, Danish nurse, pioneer in nursing education (d. )
  • 1900 – Hans-Georg Gadamer, German philosopher and scholar (d. )
  • 1900 – Jōsei Toda, educator and activist (d. )
  •  – Arne Jacobsen, Danish architect, designed Radisson Blu Royal Hotel (d. 1971)
  •  – Keith Holyoake, farmer and politician, Prime Minister of  (d. )
  • 1904 – Lucile Randon, French Supercentenarian
  •  – Philip Dunne, American screenwriter (d. )
  • 1908 – Vivian Fuchs, English explorer (d. 1999)
  • 1909 –  Baer, American boxer and (d. 1959)
  • 1909 – Joseph L. Mankiewicz, American director, , and screenwriter (d. )
  •  – Rudolf Firkušný, Czech-American pianist and educator (d. 1994)
  •  – Matt Dennis, American singer-songwriter and pianist (d. 2002)
  • 1914 – Josh White, American blues singer-songwriter and guitarist (d. )
  •  – Patrick Leigh Fermor, English soldier, author, and scholar (d. 2011)
  • 1915 – Richard Hamming, American mathematician and academic (d. )
  •  – Sidney Sheldon, American author and screenwriter (d. )
  •  – Farouk I, King of Egypt (d. )
  • 1920 – Daniel F. Galouye, American author (d. )
  • 1920 – Billy Halop, (d. 1976)
  • 1920 – Daniel James, Jr., American general and pilot (d. )
  •  – Lloyd Bentsen, American colonel and politician, United States Secretary of the Treasury (d. )
  • 1921 – Ottavio Missoni, Italian hurdler and fashion designer, founded Missoni (d. 2013)
  •  – Antony Flew, English philosopher and academic (d. )
  •  – Budge Patty, American tennis player
  •  – Virginia E. Johnson, American psychologist and academic (d. 2013)
  • 1925 – Kim Stanley, American actress (d. 2001)
  •  – Paul Bocuse, French chef (d. 2018)
  • 1926 – Leslie Nielsen, Canadian-American actor and producer (d. 2010)
  •  – Roy De Forest, American painter and academic (d. 2007).
  •  – Dennis Skinner, English miner and politician
  •  – Mel Carnahan, American lieutenant, lawyer, and politician, Governor of  (d. )
  • 1934 – Tina Louise, American actress and singer
  • 1934 – Manuel Noriega, Panamanian general and politician, Military leader of  (d. 2017)
  • 1934 – Mary Quant, British fashion designer
  • 1934 – David Taylor, English veterinarian and television host (d. 2013)
  •  – Gene , American singer and guitarist (d. 1971)
  • 1936 – Burt Reynolds, American actor and director (d. 2018)
  • 1937 – Ian Gow, British Member of Parliament who was assassinated by the IRA (d. 1990)
  • 1937 – Bill Lawry, Australian and sportscaster
  • 1937 – Eddie Shack, Canadian ice player
  • 1937 – Phillip Walker, American singer and guitarist (d. 2010)
  • 1938 – Bevan Congdon, New Zealand cricketer (d. 2018)
  • 1939 – Gerry Goffin, American songwriter (d. 2014)
  •  – Mick Staton, American soldier and politician (d. 2014)
  •  – Sérgio Mendes, Brazilian pianist and composer
  • 1942 – Otis Clay, American singer-songwriter (d. 2016)
  •  – Joselito, Spanish singer and actor
  • 1943 – Alan Rubin, American trumpet player (d. 2011)
  •  – Mike Oxley, American lawyer and politician (d. 2016)
  • 1944 – Joy Williams, American novelist, short story writer, and essayist
  •  – Ian Porterfield, Scottish footballer and manager (d. 2007)
  •  – Yukio Hatoyama, Japanese engineer and politician and Prime Minister of Japan
  • 1947 – Derek Shulman, Scottish singer-songwriter and producer
  •  – Mike Leavitt, American politician, 14th Governor of Utah
  • 1953 – Philip Anglim, American actor
  • 1953 – Jeb Bush, American banker, politician and Governor of Florida
  • 1953 – Tom Veryzer, American baseball player (d. 2014)
  • 1954 – Wesley Strick, American director and screenwriter
  •  – Didier Lockwood, French violinist (d. 2018)
  • 1959 – Roberto Moreno, Brazilian race car driver
  •  – Richard Mastracchio, American engineer and astronaut
  •  – Tammy Baldwin, American lawyer and politician
  • 1962 – Sheryl Crow, American singer-songwriter and guitarist
  • 1964 – , American journalist, politician and Governor of Alaska
  • 1964 – Ken Shamrock, American martial artist and wrestler
  • 1965 – Vicki Wilson, Australian netball player
  •  – Mo Willems, American author and illustrator
  • 1969 – Jennifer Aniston, American actress and producer
  • 1969 – Andreas Hilfiker, Swiss footballer
  • 1969 – John Salako, Nigerian-, manager, and sportscaster
  • 1971 – Damian Lewis, English actor
  •  – Steve McManaman, English footballer
  •  – Varg Vikernes, Norwegian guitarist and songwriter
  •  – Nick Barmby, English international footballer, midfielder and manager
  • 1974 – D’Angelo, American singer-songwriter, guitarist, and producer
  • 1974 – Jaroslav Špaček, Czech ice hockey player and coach
  •  – Andy Lally, American race car driver
  • 1975 – Callum Thorp, Australian cricketer
  • 1975 – Jacque Vaughn, American basketball player and coach
  • 1976 – Tony Battie, American basketball player and sportscaster
  • 1979 – Brandy Norwood, American singer-songwriter, producer, and actress
  •  – Ľubomíra Kalinová, Slovak biathlete
  • 1982 – Neil Robertson, Australian snooker player
  • 1983 – Rafael van der Vaart, Dutch international footballer, midfielder
  •  – Maarten Heisen, Dutch sprinter
  • 1984 – Marco Marcato, Italian cyclist
  • 1984 – Maxime Talbot, Canadian ice hockey player
  •  – Šárka Strachová, Czech skier
  •  – Luca Antonelli, Italian footballer
  • 1987 – Juanmi Callejón, Spanish footballer
  • 1987 – Ellen van Dijk, Dutch cyclist
  • 1987 – Brian Matusz, American baseball player
  • 1987 – Jan Smeekens, Dutch speed skater
  •  – Vlad Moldoveanu, Romanian basketball player
  • 1990 – Javier Aquino, Mexican footballer
  •  – Nikola Mirotic, Spanish basketball player
  • 1992 – Lasse Norman Hansen, Danish track and road cyclist
  • 1993 – Ben McLemore, American basketball player
  • 1994 – Dansby Swanson, American baseball player
  •  – Jonathan Tah, German footballer

Deaths on February 11

  • AD 55 – Britannicus, Roman son of Claudius (b. 41)
  •  – Gordian III, (b. )
  •  – Heraclius, Byzantine emperor (b. 575)
  •  – Pope Gregory II (b. )
  •  – Pope Paschal I
  •  – Hugh of Saint Victor, German philosopher and theologian (b. )
  • 1503 – Elizabeth of York (b. 1466)
  •  – Pietro Cataldi, Italian mathematician and astronomer (b. )
  •  – René Descartes, French mathematician and philosopher (b. )
  •  – Francesco Scipione, marchese di Maffei, Italian archaeologist, playwright, and critic (b. )
  •  – William Shenstone, English poet and gardener (b. )
  •  – Carl Michael Bellman, Swedish poet and composer (b. )
  •  – Alexander Griboyedov, Russian poet, playwright, and composer (b. 1795)
  •  – Elizabeth Siddal, English poet and artist’s model (b. 1829)
  •  – Léon Foucault, French physicist and academic (b. )
  • 1898 – Félix María Zuloaga, Mexican general and unconstitutional interim president (1858 and 1860-1862) (b. 1813)
  •  – Milan I of  (b. 1855)
  • 1917 – Oswaldo Cruz, Brazilian physician and epidemiologist (b. )
  •  – Alexey Kaledin, Russian general (b. 1861)
  • 1931 – Charles Algernon Parsons, English-Irish engineer, invented the steam turbine (b. )
  • 1940 – John Buchan, Scottish-Canadian historian and politician, Governor General of  (b. )
  • 1940 – Ellen Day Hale, American painter and author (b. 1855)
  • 1942 – Jamnalal Bajaj, Indian businessman and philanthropist (b. )
  • 1947 – Martin Klein, Estonian wrestler and coach (b. 1884)
  •  – Sergei Eisenstein, Russian director and screenwriter (b. 1898)
  •  – Axel Munthe, Swedish doctor (b. )
  • 1958 – Ernest Jones, Welsh neurologist and psychoanalyst (b. )
  •  – John Olof Dahlgren, Swedish-American soldier,  recipient (b. 1872)
  • 1963 – Sylvia Plath, American poet, novelist, and short story writer (b. 1932)
  •  – A. J. Muste, Dutch-American minister and activist (b. )
  • 1968 – Howard Lindsay, American playwright (b. 1889)
  • 1973 – J. Hans D. Jensen, German physicist and academic,  laureate (b. )
  • 1975 – Richard Ratsimandrava, Malagasy colonel and politician, President of Madagascar (b. 1931)
  • 1976 – Lee J. Cobb, American actor (b. )
  • 1976 – Alexander Lippisch, German pilot and engineer (b. )
  •  – Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed, Indian lawyer and politician, President of  (b. )
  • 1977 – Louis Beel, Dutch academic and politician, Prime Minister of the Netherlands (b. 1902)
  • 1978 – James Bryant Conant, American chemist and academic (b. )
  • 1978 – Harry Martinson, Swedish novelist, essayist, and poet, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1904)
  • 1982 – Eleanor Powell, American actress and dancer (b. 1912)
  • 1985 – Henry Hathaway, American actor, director, and producer (b. 1898)
  •  – Frank Herbert, American journalist and author (b. 1920)
  •  – George O’Hanlon, American actor and voice artist (b. 1912)
  • 1993 – Robert W. Holley, American biochemist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate (b. )
  • 1994 – Neil Bonnett, American race car driver (b. 1946)
  • 1994 – Sorrell Booke, American lieutenant, actor, and director (b. 1930)
  • 1994 – William Conrad, American actor, director, and producer (b. 1920)
  • 1994 – Paul Feyerabend, Austrian-Swiss philosopher and academic (b. 1924)
  • 1996 – Amelia Rosselli, Italian poet and author (b. 1930)
  • 2000 – Lord Kitchner, Trinidadian singer (b. 1922)
  • 2000 – Roger Vadim, French director, producer, and screenwriter (b. )
  • 2002 – Frankie Crosetti, American baseball player and coach (b. 1910)
  • 2002 – Barry Foster, English actor (b. 1931)
  •  – Shirley Strickland, Australian runner (b. 1925)
  •  – Jack L. Chalker, American author (b. 1944)
  • 2006 – Peter Benchley, American author and screenwriter (b. 1940)
  • 2006 – Ken Fletcher, Australian tennis player (b. 1940)
  • 2006 – Jackie Pallo, English wrestler and actor (b. 1926)
  • 2008 – Tom Lantos, American lawyer and politician (b. 1928)
  • 2008 – Frank Piasecki, American engineer (b. 1919)
  •  – Estelle Bennett, American singer (b. 1941)
  • 2009 – Willem Johan Kolff, Dutch-American physician and academic (b. 1911)
  • 2010 – Heward Grafftey, Canadian businessman and politician (b. 1928)
  • 2010 – Alexander McQueen, English fashion designer, founder of his eponymous brand (b. 1969)
  • 2011 – Chuck Tanner, American baseball player and manager (b. 1928)
  •  – Siri Bjerke, Norwegian politician, Norwegian Minister of the Environment (b. 1958)
  • 2012 – Aharon Davidi, Israeli general (b. )
  • 2012 – Whitney Houston, American singer-songwriter, producer, and actress (b. 1963)
  • 2013 – Rick Huxley, English bass player (b. 1940)
  • 2014 – Alice Babs, Swedish singer and actress (b. 1924)
  • 2014 – Tito Canepa, Dominican-American painter (b. )
  • 2014 – Fernando González Pacheco, Colombian journalist and actor (b. 1932)
  • 2015 – Roger Hanin, French actor, director, and screenwriter (b. 1925)
  • 2015 – Bob Simon, American journalist (b. 1941)
  • 2015 – Jerry Tarkanian, American basketball player and coach (b. 1930)
  • 2016 – Kevin Randleman, American mixed martial artist and wrestler (b. 1971)
  • 2016 – Zeng Xuelin, Thai- footballer and manager (b. 1929)
  • 2017 – Fab Melo, Brazilian basketball player (b. 1990)
  • 2017 – Jaap Rijks, Dutch Olympian (b. 1919)
  • 2018 – Vic Damone, American singer, songwriter and actor (b. 1928)
  • 2018 – Asma Jahangir, Pakistani human-rights lawyer and social activist (b. )
  • 2018 – Jan Maxwell, American stage and television actress (b. 1956)
  • 2018 – Qazi Wajid, Pakistani drama actor, writer and artist (b. 1930)

Holidays and observances on February 11

  • Christian feast day:
    • Blaise Eastern Orthodox liturgics
    • Cædmon, first recorded Christian poet in England, circa CE (Anglicanism)
    • Gobnait
    • Gregory II
    • Lazarus of Milan
  • 112 Day ( Union)
  • Armed Forces Day (Liberia)
  • Evelio Javier Day (Panay Island, the )
  • Feast day of Our Lady of Lourdes (), and its related observance
    • World Day of the Sick (Roman Catholic Church)
  • ’ Day (United States)
  • National Foundation Day (Japan)
  • Youth Day (Cameroon)
  • International Day of Women and Girls in Science (UN Women)
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