Answering Exams

February 10 – History, Events, Births, Deaths, Holidays and Observances On This Day

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  •  – Mongol invasions: Baghdad falls to the Mongols, bringing the Islamic Golden Age to an end.
  •  – In front of the high altar of Greyfriars Church in Dumfries, Robert the Bruce murders John Comyn sparking the revolution in the Wars of Scottish Independence.
  •  – The St Scholastica Day riot breaks out in Oxford, England, leaving 63 scholars and perhaps 30 locals dead in two days.
  •  – Vasco da Gama sets sail from Lisbon, , on his second voyage to .
  • 1567 – Lord Darnley, second husband of Mary, Queen of Scots, is found strangled following an explosion at the Kirk o’ Field house in Edinburgh, , a suspected assassination.
  •  – Huilliches in Chiloé rebel against Spanish encomenderos.
  •  – French and Indian War: The Treaty of Paris ends the war and cedes Quebec to Great Britain.
  •  – Napoleonic Wars: The Battle of Champaubert ends in French victory over the Russians and the Prussians.
  •  – Queen Victoria of the marries Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha.
  •  – First Anglo-Sikh War: Battle of Sobraon: British defeat Sikhs in the final battle of the war.
  •  – Jefferson Davis is notified by telegraph that he has been chosen as provisional  of the  .
  •  – : A Union naval flotilla destroys the bulk of the Confederate Mosquito Fleet in the Battle of Elizabeth City on the Pasquotank River in North Carolina.
  •  – HMS Dreadnought, the first of a revolutionary new breed of battleships is christened and launched by King Edward VII.
  •  – Józef Haller de Hallenburg performs symbolic wedding of to the sea, celebrating restitution of Polish access to open sea.
  • 1920 – About 75 % of the population in Zone I votes to join Denmark in the 1920 Schleswig plebiscites.
  •  –  Tech University is founded as Technological in Lubbock, Texas
  •  – The Việt Nam Quốc Dân Đảng launches the failed Yên Bái mutiny in hope to overthrow French protectorate over .
  • 19 – In round 13 of a boxing match at City’s Madison Square Garden, Primo Carnera knocks out Ernie Schaaf. Schaaf dies four days later.
  •  – Second Italo-Abyssinian War: Italian troops launched the Battle of Amba Aradam against Ethiopian defenders.
  •  – Spanish Civil War: The Nationalists conclude their conquest of Catalonia and seal the border with France.
  •  – The  begins mass deportations of Polish citizens from occupied eastern Poland to Siberia.
  • 1940 – Cartoon characters Tom and Jerry make their debut with Puss Gets the Boot.
  •  – : Imperial Army capture Banjarmasin, capital of Borneo in  East Indies.
  •  – War II: Attempting to completely lift the Siege of Leningrad, the Soviet Red Army engages  troops and Spanish volunteers in the Battle of Krasny Bor.
  •  – The Paris Peace Treaties are signed by , Romania, Hungary, Bulgaria, Finland and the Allies of World War II.
  •  – U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower warns against intervention in Vietnam.
  •  – Cold War: Captured American U2 spy-plane pilot Gary Powers is exchanged for captured Soviet spy Rudolf Abel.
  • 1962 – Roy Lichtenstein’s first solo exhibition opened, and it included Look Mickey, which featured his first employment of Ben-Day dots, speech balloons and comic imagery sourcing, all of which he is now known for.
  •  – Melbourne–Voyager collision: The aircraft carrier HMAS Melbourne collides with and sinks the destroyer HMAS Voyager off the south coast of New South Wales, , killing 82.
  •  – The 25th Amendment to the United States Constitution is ratified.
  •  – Ras Al Khaimah joins the United Arab Emirates, now making up seven emirates.
  •  – Kenyan soldiers kill an estimated 5000 ethnic Somali Kenyans in the Wagalla massacre.
  •  – Ron Brown is elected chairman of the  National Committee becoming the first African American to lead a major American political party.
  •  – IBM supercomputer Deep Blue defeats Garry Kasparov in chess for the first time.
  •  – France and Belgium break the NATO procedure of silent approval concerning the timing of protective measures for Turkey in case of a possible war with Iraq.
  •  – Then Illinois senator Barack Obama announces his candidacy for president in the  elections, which he later goes on to win.
  •  – The communications satellites Iridium 33 and Kosmos 2251 collide in orbit, destroying both.
  •  – Thirty-six people are killed and 39 others are injured in a stampede in Allahabad, India, during the Kumbh Mela festival.
  •  –  decides to stop the operation of the Kaesong joint industrial complex with North  in response to the launch of Kwangmyŏngsŏng-4.
  • – 19 people are killed and 66 injured when a double-decker on route in overturns.

Births on February 10

  •  – George of the Palatinate, German bishop (d. )
  •  – Thomas Platter, Swiss author and scholar (d. )
  •  – Domenico Bollani, Bishop of Milan (d. )
  •  – Christine of France, Duchess of Savoy (d. )
  •  – John Suckling, poet and playwright (d. )
  •  – Cornelis de Bie, Flemish poet and jurist (d. )
  •  – Aaron Hill, English poet and playwright (d. )
  •  – Johann Melchior Molter, German violinist and composer (d. )
  •  – William Cornwallis, English admiral and politician (d. )
  •  – Benjamin Smith Barton, American botanist and physician (d. )
  •  – Charles Lamb, English poet and essayist (d. )
  •  – Claude-Louis Navier, French physicist and engineer (d. )
  •  – Ary Scheffer, Dutch-French painter and academic (d. )
  •  – George Chichester, 3rd Marquess of Donegall (d. )
  •  – Roberto Bompiani, Italian painter and sculptor (d. )
  •  – Samuel Plimsoll, English merchant and politician (d. )
  •  – Agnes Mary Clerke, Irish astronomer and author (d. )
  •  – Adelina Patti, Italian-French opera singer (d. )
  • 1846 – Lord Charles Beresford, Irish admiral and politician (d. 1919)
  • 1846 – Ira Remsen, American chemist and academic (d. )
  •  – Nabinchandra Sen, Bangladeshi poet and author (d. )
  •  – Alexandre Millerand, French lawyer and politician, 12th President of France (d. 1943)
  •  – Robert Garran, Australian lawyer and public servant (d. )
  •  – Prince Waldemar of  (d. )
  • 1868 – William Allen White, American and author (d. )
  •  – Royal Cortissoz, American critic (d. )
  • 1879 – Ernst Põdder, Estonian (d. )
  •  – Pauline Brunius, Swedish actress and director (d. 1954)
  • 1883 – Edith Clarke, American electrical engineer (d. )
  • 1883 – H.V. Hordern, Australian (d. )
  •  – Cevdet Sunay, Turkish general and politician, 5th President of Turkey (d. )
  •  – Fanny Kaplan, Ukrainian-Russian activist (d. )
  • 1890 – Boris Pasternak, Russian poet, novelist, and literary translator  laureate (d. )
  •  – Alan Hale Sr., American and director (d. )
  •  – Jimmy Durante, , singer, and pianist (d. )
  • 1893 – Bill Tilden, American player and coach (d. )
  •  – Harold Macmillan, English captain and politician,  (d. )
  •  – Judith Anderson, Australian actress (d. )
  • 1897 – John Franklin Enders, American virologist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate (d. )
  • 1898 – Bertolt Brecht, German director, playwright, and poet (d. )
  • 1898 – Joseph Kessel, French journalist and author (d. )
  •  – Stella Adler, American actress and educator (d. 1992)
  •  – Walter Houser Brattain, -American physicist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate (d. )
  •  – Waldemar Hoven, German physician (d. 1948)
  • 1903 – Matthias Sindelar, Austrian footballer and manager (d. 1939)
  •  – John Farrow, Australian-American director, , and screenwriter (d. )
  •  – Walter A. Brown, American businessman, founded the Boston Celtics (d. 1964)
  • 1905 – Chick Webb, American drummer and bandleader (d. 1939)
  • 1906 – Lon Chaney Jr., American actor (d. )
  • 1907 – Anthony Cottrell, rugby player (d. )
  • 1908 – Jean Coulthard, Canadian composer and educator (d. )
  • 1909 – Min Thu Wun, Burmese poet, scholar, and politician (d. )
  •  – Dominique Pire, Belgian friar, Nobel Prize laureate (d. )
  •  – Larry Adler, American harmonica player, composer, and actor (d. )
  •  – Vladimir Zeldin, Russian actor (d. 2016)
  • 1919 – Ioannis Charalambopoulos, Greek colonel and politician, Deputy Prime Minister of  (d. )
  • 1920 – Alex Comfort, English physician and author (d. 2000)
  • 1920 – Neva Patterson, American actress (d. )
  • 1920 – José Manuel Castañón, Spanish lawyer and author (d. 2001)
  •  – Árpád Göncz, Hungarian author, playwright, and politician, 1st President of Hungary (d. )
  • 1922 – José Gabriel da Costa later known as Mestre Gabriel, Brazilian spiritual leader, founder of the União do Vegetal (d. )
  • 1923 – Allie Sherman, American football player and coach (d. 2015)
  •  –  Ferguson, Canadian host and actor (d. 2013)
  • 1924 – Bud Poile, Canadian ice player and coach (d. )
  •  – Pierre Mondy, French actor and director (d. )
  •  – Sidney Bryan Berry, American general (d. 2013)
  • 1926 – Danny Blanchflower, Northern Irish soldier, footballer and manager (d. )
  • 1927 – Leontyne Price, American operatic soprano
  •  – Jerry Goldsmith, American composer and conductor (d. 2004)
  • 1929 – Jim Whittaker, American mountaineer
  • 1929 – Lou Whittaker, American mountaineer
  • 1930 – E. L. Konigsburg, American author and (d. 2013)
  • 1930 – Robert Wagner, American actor and producer
  •  – James Edward Maceo West, American inventor and acoustician
  • 1932 – Barrie Ingham, English-American actor (d. 2015)
  •  – Richard Schickel, American journalist, author, and critic (d. )
  • 1933 – Faramarz Payvar,  santur player and composer (d. 2009)
  •  – Theodore Antoniou, Greek composer and conductor (d. 2018)
  •  – Anne Anderson, Scottish physiologist and academic (d. )
  • 1937 – Roberta Flack, American singer-songwriter and pianist
  • 1939 – Adrienne Clarkson, Hong Kong-Canadian journalist and politician, 26th  General of
  • 1939 – Deolinda Rodríguez de Almeida, Angolan nationalist (d. 1967)
  • 1940 – Mary Rand, English sprinter and long jumper
  • 1940 – Kenny Rankin, American singer-songwriter (d. 2009)
  •  – Michael Apted, English director and producer
  • 1944 – Peter Allen, Australian singer-songwriter, pianist, and actor (d. 1992)
  • 1944 – Frank Keating, American lawyer and politician, 25th Governor of Oklahoma
  • 1944 – Frances Moore Lappé, American author and activist
  • 1944 – Rufus Reid, American bassist and composer
  •  – Delma S. Arrigoitia, Puerto Rican historian, author, educator and lawyer
  • 1947 – Louise Arbour, Canadian lawyer and jurist
  • 1947 – Butch Morris, American cornet player, composer, and conductor (d. 2013)
  • 1947 – Nicholas Owen, English journalist
  •  – Nigel Olsson, English rock drummer and singer-songwriter
  • 1950 – Luis Donaldo Colosio, Mexican economist and politician (d. )
  • 1950 – Mark Spitz, American swimmer
  •  – Bob Iger, American media executive
  •  – Lee Hsien Loong, Singaporean general and politician, 3rd Prime Minister of
  •  – Jim Cramer, American television personality, pundit, and author
  • 1955 – Greg Norman, Australian golfer and sportscaster
  • 1956 – Enele Sopoaga, Tuvaluan politician, 12th Prime Minister of Tuvalu
  • 1957 – Katherine Freese, American astrophysicist and academic
  • 1959 – John Calipari, American basketball player and coach
  • 1960 – Jim Kent, American biologist, computer programmer, academic
  •  – Alexander Payne, American director, producer, and screenwriter
  • 1961 – George Stephanopoulos, American television journalist
  • 1962 – Randy Velischek, Canadian ice hockey player and coach
  • 1962 – Cliff Burton, American heavy metal bassist (d. 1986)
  • 1963 – Lenny Dykstra, American baseball player
  • 1964 – Glenn Beck, American journalist, producer, and author
  •  – Natalie Bennett, Australian-English journalist and politician
  • 1966 – Daryl Johnston, American football player and sportscaster
  • 1967 – Laura Dern, American actress, director, and producer
  • 1967 – Jacky Durand, French cyclist and sportscaster
  • 1967 – Vince Gilligan, American director, producer, and screenwriter
  •  – Peter Popovic, Swedish ice hockey player and coach
  • 1968 – Garrett Reisman, American engineer and astronaut
  • 1969 – Joe Mangrum, American painter and sculptor
  • 1969 – James Small, South African rugby player (d. )
  •  – Melissa Doyle, Australian journalist and author
  • 1970 – Noureddine Naybet, Moroccan footballer, central defender and manager
  • 1970 – Åsne Seierstad, Norwegian journalist and author
  • 1971 – Lorena Rojas, Mexican actress and singer (d. 2015)
  • 1972 – Michael Kasprowicz, Australian cricketer
  • 1973 – Martha Lane Fox, Baroness Lane-Fox of Soho, English businesswoman and politician
  •  – Elizabeth Banks, American actress
  • 1974 – Ty , American football player
  • 1974 – Ivri Lider, Israeli singer
  • 1974 – Henry Paul, New Zealand rugby player and coach
  •  – Lance Berkman, American baseball player and coach
  • 1976 – Keeley Hawes, English actress
  •  – Salif Diao, Senegalese footballer
  • 1979 – Joey Hand, American race car driver
  • 1980 – César Izturis, Venezuelan baseball player
  • 1980 – Enzo Maresca, Italian footballer
  • 1980 – Mike Ribeiro, Canadian ice hockey player
  •  – Uzo Aduba, American actress
  • 1981 – Stephanie Beatriz, American actress
  • 1981 – Andrew Johnson, English international footballer, forward and club ambassador
  • 1981 – Holly Willoughby, English model and television host
  • 1982 – Justin Gatlin, American sprinter
  • 1982 – Tarmo Neemelo, Estonian footballer
  • 1982 – Hamad Al-Tayyar, Kuwaiti footballer
  • 1982 – Iafeta Paleaaesina, New Zealand rugby league player
  • 1983 – Vic Fuentes, American singer-songwriter and guitarist
  • 1984 – Greg Bird, Australian rugby league player
  • 1984 – Alex Gordon, American baseball player
  • 1984 – Kim Hyo-jin, South actress
  • 1985 – Selçuk İnan, Turkish footballer
  • 1985 – Paul Millsap, American basketball player
  • 1986 – Jeff Adrien, American basketball player
  • 1986 – Josh Akognon, American basketball player
  • 1986 – Radamel Falcao, Colombian footballer
  • 1986 – Roberto Jiménez Gago, Spanish footballer
  • 1986 – Viktor Troicki, Serbian tennis player
  • 1987 – Jakub Kindl, Czech ice hockey player
  • 1987 – Facundo Roncaglia, Argentinian footballer
  • 1988 – Francesco Acerbi, Italian footballer
  • 1989 – Liam Hendriks, Australian baseball player
  •  – Barbara Guarischi, Italian cyclist
  • 1990 – Choi Soo-young, South Korean singer-songwriter, actress, and dancer
  •  – Rebecca Dempster, Scottish footballer
  • 1991 – Emma Roberts, American actress
  • 1992 – Haruka Nakagawa, Japanese singer and actress
  • 1992 – Reinhold Yabo, German footballer
  • 1993 – Max Kepler, German baseball player
  • 1993 – Filip Twardzik, Czech footballer
  • 1993 – Luis Madrigal, Mexican footballer
  • 1994 – Kang Seul-gi, South Korean singer and member of Red Velvet
  •  – Carolane Soucisse, Canadian ice dancer
  • 1996 – Emanuel Mammana, Argentinian footballer
  •  – Lilly King, American swimmer
  • 1997 – Chloë Grace Moretz, American actress
  • 1997 – Nadia Podoroska, Argentinian tennis player
  • 2000 – Yara Shahidi, American actress and model

Deaths on February 10

  •  – Scholastica, Christian nun
  •  – William IX, Duke of Aquitaine (b. )
  •  – Baldwin III of Jerusalem (b. )
  •  –  Shijō of (b. )
  • 1242 – Saint Verdiana, Italian recluse (b. )
  •  – Margaret II, Countess of Flanders (b. )
  • 1306 – John “the Red” Comyn, Scottish nobleman
  •  – Temür Khan, Emperor Chengzong of Yuan (b. )
  •  – Blessed Clare of Rimini (b. )
  •  – Frederick II, Margrave of Brandenburg (b. )
  •  – Catherine of Saxony, Archduchess of  (b. )
  •  – John V, Count of Oldenburg, German noble (b. )
  • 1567 – Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, consort of Mary, Queen of Scots (b. )
  •  – Wilhelm Xylander, German scholar, translator, and academic (b. )
  •  – William Dugdale, English genealogist and historian (b. )
  •  – Montesquieu, French lawyer and philosopher (b. )
  •  – Friedrich Christoph Oetinger, German theologian and author (b. )
  •  – Pope Leo XII (b. )
  •  – Alexander Pushkin, Russian poet and author (b. )
  •  – José Joaquín de Herrera, Mexican politician and general. President three times () (b. )
  •  – David Thompson, English-Canadian surveyor and explorer (b. )
  •  – Heinrich Lenz, Estonian-Italian physicist and academic (b. )
  • 1879 – Honoré Daumier, French illustrator and painter (b. )
  •  – Ellen Wood, English author (b. 1814)
  •  – Sofia Kovalevskaya, Russian-Swedish mathematician and physicist (b. )
  • 1904 – John A. Roche, American lawyer and politician, 30th Mayor of Chicago (b. 1844)
  • 1906 – Ezra Butler Eddy, American-Canadian businessman and politician (b. )
  •  – Joseph Lister, 1st Baron Lister, English surgeon and academic (b. 1827)
  •  – Konstantinos Tsiklitiras, Greek long jumper (b. )
  •  – John William Waterhouse, English soldier and painter (b. )
  • 1918 – Abdul Hamid II, Ottoman sultan (b. 1842)
  • 1918 – , Italian soldier and journalist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. )
  • 1920 – Henry Strangways, English-Australian politician, 12th Premier of South Australia (b. )
  • 1923 – Wilhelm Röntgen, German physicist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate (b. )
  •  – José Sánchez del Río, Mexican martyr and saint (b. 1913)
  • 1932 – Edgar Wallace, English author and screenwriter (b. )
  • 1939 – Pope Pius XI (b. 1857)
  • 1944 – E. M. Antoniadi, Greek-French astronomer and chess player (b. )
  • 1945 – Anacleto Díaz, Filipino lawyer and jurist (b. )
  • 1950 – Marcel Mauss, French sociologist and anthropologist (b. )
  • 1956 – Leonora Speyer, American poet and violinist (b. 1872)
  • 1956 – Emmanouil Tsouderos, Greek banker and politician, 132nd Prime Minister of Greece (b. )
  • 1957 – Laura Ingalls Wilder, American author (b. 1867)
  • 1960 – Aloysius Stepinac, Croatian cardinal (b. 1898)
  • 1966 – Billy Rose, American composer and songwriter (b. )
  • 1967 – Dionysios Kokkinos, Greek historian and author (b. )
  •  – Nikos Kavvadias, Greek sailor and poet (b. 1910)
  • 1979 – Edvard Kardelj, Slovene general and politician, 2nd Foreign Minister of Yugoslavia (b. 1910)
  • 1992 – Alex Haley, American soldier, journalist, and author (b. )
  • 1993 – Fred Hollows, New Zealand-Australian ophthalmologist and academic (b. 1929)
  • 1995 – Paul Monette, American author, poet, and activist (b. 1945)
  • 1997 – Brian Connolly, Scottish musician, lead singer The Sweet (b. 1945)
  • 2000 – Jim Varney, American actor, comedian and writer (b. 1949)
  • 2001 – Abraham Beame, American academic and politician, 104th Mayor of New York City (b. 1906)
  • 2001 – Buddy Tate, American saxophonist and clarinet player (b. 1913)
  •  – Dave Van Ronk, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (b. 1936)
  • 2003 – Edgar de Evia, Mexican-American photographer (b. 1910)
  • 2003 – Albert J. Ruffo, American lawyer and politician, Mayor of San Jose (b. 1908)
  • 2003 – Ron Ziegler, American politician, 14th White House Press Secretary (b. 1939)
  • 2005 – Arthur Miller, American actor, playwright, and author (b. 1915)
  •  – James Yancey, American record producer and rapper (b. 1974)
  • 2008 – Roy Scheider, American actor and boxer (b. 1932)
  • 2010 – Fred Schaus, American basketball player and coach (b. 1925)
  • 2010 – Charles Wilson, American lieutenant and politician (b. 1933)
  •  – Trevor Bailey, English cricketer and journalist (b. 1923)
  • 2012 – Lloyd Morrison, New Zealand banker and businessman, founded H. R. L. Morrison & Co (b. 1957)
  • 2012 – Jeffrey Zaslow, American journalist and author (b. )
  • 2013 – W. Watts Biggers, American author, screenwriter, and animator (b. 1927)
  • 2013 – David Hartman, American-Israeli rabbi and philosopher, founded the Shalom Hartman Institute (b. 1931)
  • 2014 – Stuart Hall, Jamaican-English sociologist and theorist (b. 1932)
  • 2014 – Shirley Temple, American actress and diplomat (b. 1928)
  • 2015 – Naseer Aruri, Palestinian scholar and activist (b. )
  • 2015 – Karl Josef Becker, German cardinal and theologian (b. 1928)
  • 2015 – Deng Liqun, Chinese theorist and politician (b. 1915)
  • 2016 – Fatima Surayya Bajia, Indian-Pakistani author and playwright (b. 1930)
  • 2017 – Mike Ilitch, American businessman (b. 1929)
  • 2019 – Carmen Argenziano, American actor (b. 1943)
  • 2019 – Jan-Michael , American actor (b. 1944)

Holidays and observances on February 10

  • Christian feast day:
    • Austrebertha
    • Charalambos
    • José Sánchez del Río
    • Scholastica
    • February 10 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)
  • Feast of ’s Shipwreck ()
  • Fenkil Day (Eritrea)
  • Kurdish Authors Union Day (Iraqi Kurdistan)
  • National Memorial Day of the Exiles and Foibe (Italy)
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