Answering Exams

January 5 – History, Events, Births, Deaths, Holidays and Observances On This Day

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  •  – Battle of Nancy: Charles the Bold is defeated and killed in a conflict with René II, Duke of Lorraine; the Burgundy subsequently becomes part of .
  •  – Battle of Colmar: The French army beats Brandenburg.
  •  – Louis XV of France survives an assassination attempt by Robert-François Damiens, the last person to be executed in France by drawing and quartering, the traditional and gruesome form of capital punishment used for regicides.
  •  – American Revolutionary War: Richmond, Virginia, is burned by British naval forces led by Benedict Arnold.
  •  – The Palais Garnier, one of the most famous opera houses in the , is inaugurated in Paris.
  •  – Dreyfus affair: French army officer Alfred Dreyfus is stripped of his rank and sentenced to life imprisonment on Devil’s Island.
  •  – Kappa Alpha Psi, the world’s third oldest and largest black fraternity, is founded at Indiana University.
  •  – The 6th All-Russian Conference of the Russian Social Labour Party (Prague Party Conference) opens. In the course of the conference, Vladimir Lenin and his supporters break from the rest of the party to form the Bolshevik movement.
  •  – : The Battle of Lemnos begins; Greek admiral Pavlos Kountouriotis forces the Turkish fleet to retreat to its base within the Dardanelles, from which it did not venture for the rest of the war.
  •  – The Ford Motor Company announces an eight-hour workday and minimum daily wage of $5 in salary plus bonuses.
  •  – The  Workers’ Party, which would become the Nazi Party, is founded in Munich.
  •  – Nellie Tayloe Ross of Wyoming becomes the first female in the .
  •  – Construction of the Golden Gate Bridge begins in San Francisco Bay.
  •  – 37-year-old pilot , the first woman to fly solo from London to , disappears after bailing out of her plane over the , and is presumed dead.
  •  – The Daily Mail becomes the first major London to be published on both sides of the Atlantic.
  •  – The recognizes the new pro-Soviet Provisional Government of the Republic of .
  •  – In his “State of the Union” address, United States  Harry S. Truman unveils his Fair Deal program.
  •  – In the Sverdlovsk air disaster, all 19 of those on board are killed, including almost the entire national ice team (VVS ) of the Soviet Air Force – 11 players, as well as a team doctor and a masseur.
  •  – The play Waiting for Godot by Samuel Beckett receives its première in Paris.
  •  – In a speech given to the United States Congress, United States President Dwight D. Eisenhower announces the establishment of what will later be called the Eisenhower Doctrine
  •  – Alexander Dubček comes to power in Czechoslovakia, effectively beginning the “Prague Spring”
  •  – The Venera 5 space probe is launched at 06:28:08 UTCfrom Baikonur.
  •  – The 7.1 Mw  Tonghai earthquake shakes Tonghai County, Yunnan province, , with a maximum Mercalli intensity of X (Extreme). Between 10,000 and 15,000 people are known to have been killed and about another 26,000 are injured.
  •  – The warmest reliably measured temperature within the Antarctic Circle, of +59 °F (+15 °C), is recorded at Vanda Station.
  •  – The Tasman Bridge in Tasmania, Australia, is struck by the bulk ore carrier Lake Illawarra, killing twelve people.
  •  – The Khmer Rouge proclaim the Constitution of Democratic Kampuchea.
  • 1976 – The Troubles: Gunmen shoot dead ten Protestant civilians after stopping their minibus at Kingsmill in County Armagh, Northern Ireland, , allegedly as retaliation for a string of attacks on Catholic civilians in the area by Loyalists, particularly the killing of six the night before.
  •  – Georgian forces enter Tskhinvali, the capital of South Ossetia, , opening the –92 South Ossetia War.
  • 1991 – Somali Civil War: The United States Embassy to  in  is evacuated by helicopter airlift days after the outbreak of violence in .
  •  – The oil tanker MV Braer runs aground on the coast of the Shetland Islands, spilling 84,700 tons of crude oil.
  •  – A launch of the communication satellite GSAT-14 aboard the GSLV MK.II D5 marks the first successful flight of an Indian cryogenic engine.

Births on January 5

  •  – Richard, 1st Earl of Cornwall, prince, nominal King of (d. )
  •  – Gaspar de Bono, monk of the Order of the Minims (d. )
  •  – Francisco Suárez, Spanish priest, philosopher, and theologian (d. )
  •  – Xu Xiake, geographer and explorer (d. )
  •  – Shah Jahan, Mughal (d. )
  •  – Miklós Zrínyi, Croatian military commander (d. )
  •  – Paolo Lorenzani, Italian composer (d. )
  •  – Claude Martin, French-English and explorer (d. )
  •  – Jean-Baptiste Say, French economist and academic (d. )
  •  – Stephen Decatur, American commander (d. )
  • 1779 – Zebulon Pike, American general and explorer (d. )
  • 1781 – Gaspar Flores de Abrego, three terms mayor of San Antonio, in Spanish (d. )
  •  – Harvey Putnam, American lawyer and politician (d. )
  •  – Anton Füster, Austrian priest and activist (d. )
  •  – William John Wills, English surgeon and explorer (d. )
  •  – Camille Jordan, French mathematician and academic (d. )
  •  – Rudolf Christoph Eucken, German philosopher and author,  laureate (d. )
  • 1846 – Mariam Baouardy, Syrian Roman Catholic nun; later canonized (d. )
  • 1855 – King Camp Gillette, American businessman, founded the Gillette Company (d. )
  •  – Bob Caruthers, American baseball player and manager (d. 1911)
  •  – Dimitrios Gounaris, Greek lawyer and politician, 94th Prime Minister of  (d. 1922)
  •  – Frederick Converse, American composer and academic (d. )
  •  – Joseph Erlanger, American physiologist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate (d. )
  •  – Konrad Adenauer, German lawyer and politician, Chancellor of  (d. )
  •  – Hans Eppinger, Austrian physician and academic (d. )
  •  – Nikolai Medtner, Russian pianist and composer (d. )
  • 1881 – Pablo Gargallo, Spanish sculptor and painter (d. )
  •  – Herbert Bayard Swope, American (d. )
  •  – Humbert Wolfe, Italian-English poet and civil servant (d. 1940)
  •  – Markus Reiner, Israeli physicist and engineer (d. 1976)
  •  – Agnes von Kurowsky, American nurse (d. )
  •  – Paramahansa Yogananda, Indian-American guru and philosopher (d. )
  •  – Kiyoshi Miki, philosopher and author (d. 1945)
  •  – Yves Tanguy, French-American painter (d. )
  •  – Hubert Beuve-Méry, French journalist (d. )
  • 1902 – Stella Gibbons, English journalist and author (d. 1989)
  •  – Harold Gatty, Australian pilot and navigator (d. 1957)
  •  – Jeane Dixon, American astrologer and psychic (d. )
  • 1904 – Erika Morini, Austrian violinist (d. )
  •  – Kathleen Kenyon, English archaeologist and academic (d. )
  •  – Volmari Iso-Hollo, Finnish athlete (d. 1969)
  •  – George Dolenz, Italian-American (d. )
  •  – Lucienne Bloch, Swiss-American sculptor, painter, and photographer (d. 1995)
  • 1909 – Stephen Cole Kleene, American mathematician and computer (d. )
  •  – Jack Lovelock, runner and journalist (d. 1949)
  • 1911 – Jean-Pierre Aumont, French actor and screenwriter (d. )
  • 1914 – Nicolas de Staël, Russian-French painter and (d. 1955)
  • 1914 – George Reeves, and director (d. )
  •  – Arthur H. Robinson, Canadian geographer and cartographer (d. )
  •  – Francis L. Kellogg, American businessman and diplomat (d. )
  • 1917 – Wieland Wagner, German director and (d. )
  • 1917 – Jane Wyman, American actress (d. )
  • 1919 – Hector Abhayavardhana, Sri Lankan theorist and politician (d. )
  • 1919 – Severino Gazzelloni, Italian flute player (d. )
  •  – Arturo Benedetti Michelangeli, Italian pianist and educator (d. 1995)
  •  – Friedrich Dürrenmatt, Swiss author and playwright (d. )
  • 1921 – Jean, Grand Duke of Luxembourg, Luxembourgish soldier and aristocrat (d. )
  • 1921 – John H. Reed, American politician and diplomat, 67th Governor of Maine (d. 2012)
  • 1922 – Anthony Synnot, Australian admiral (d. 2001)
  •  – Sam Phillips, American host and producer, founded Sun Records (d. )
  • 1926 – Veikko Karvonen, Finnish runner (d. 2007)
  • 1926 – W. D. Snodgrass, American poet (d. )
  • 1926 – Hosea Williams, American businessman and activist (d. )
  •  – Sivaya Subramuniyaswami, American guru and author, founded Iraivan Temple (d. 2001)
  •  – Imtiaz Ahmed, Pakistani (d. )
  • 1928 – Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, Pakistani lawyer and politician, 4th President of  (d. )
  • 1928 – Walter Mondale, American soldier, lawyer, and politician, 42nd  of the United States
  •  – Aulis Rytkönen, Finnish footballer and manager (d. 2014)
  •  – Alvin Ailey, American dancer and choreographer, founded the Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater (d. 1989)
  • 1931 – Alfred Brendel, Austrian pianist, poet, and author
  • 1931 – Robert Duvall, American actor and director
  • 1932 – Umberto Eco, Italian novelist, literary critic, and philosopher (d. 2016)
  • 1932 – Chuck Noll, American football player and coach (d. 2014)
  • 1934 – Phil Ramone, South African-American songwriter and producer, co-founded A & R Recording (d. )
  • 1934 – Murli Manohar Joshi, Indian politician
  •  – Florence King, American journalist and memoirist (d. 2016)
  •  – Juan Carlos I of
  • 1938 – Ngũgĩ wa Thiong’o, Kenyan author and playwright
  •  – M. E. H. Maharoof, Sri Lankan politician (d. 1997)
  • 1940 – Athol Guy, Australian singer-songwriter and bassist
  • 1 – Bob Cunis, New Zealand cricketer (d. )
  • 1941 – Chuck McKinley, American player (d. )
  • 1941 – Hayao Miyazaki, Japanese animator, director, and screenwriter
  • 1941 – Mansoor Ali Khan Pataudi, Indian cricketer and coach (d. )
  •  – Maurizio Pollini, Italian pianist and conductor
  • 1942 – Charlie Rose, American journalist and talk show host
  •  – Mary Gaudron, Australian lawyer and judge
  • 1943 – Murtaz Khurtsilava, Georgian footballer and manager
  • 1944 – Ed Rendell, American politician, 45th Governor of
  • 1946 – Diane Keaton, American actress, director, and businesswoman
  •  – Mike DeWine, American lawyer and politician, 70th Governor of
  • 1950 – Ioan P. Culianu, Romanian historian, philosopher, and author (d. 1991)
  • 1950 – Peter Goldsmith, Baron Goldsmith, English lawyer and politician, Attorney General for England and Wales
  • 1950 – John Manley, Canadian lawyer and politician, 8th Deputy Prime Minister of
  • 1950 – Chris Stein, American guitarist, songwriter, and producer
  • 1952 – Uli Hoeneß, German footballer and manager
  • 1953 – Pamela Sue Martin, American actress
  • 1953 – Mike Rann, English-Australian journalist and politician, 44th Premier of South Australia
  • 1953 – George Tenet, American civil servant and academic, 18th Director of Central Intelligence
  •  – Alex English, American basketball player and coach
  • 1954 – László Krasznahorkai, Hungarian author and screenwriter
  • 1955 – Mamata Banerjee, Indian lawyer and politician, Chief Minister of West
  •  – Frank-Walter Steinmeier, German academic and politician, 14th Vice-Chancellor of Germany
  • 1958 – Ron Kittle, American baseball player and manager
  • 1959 – Nancy Delahunt, Canadian curler
  •  – Glenn Strömberg, Swedish footballer and sportscaster
  •  – Iris DeMent, American singer-songwriter and guitarist
  •  – Suzy Amis, American actress and model
  • 1962 – Danny Jackson, American baseball player and manager
  • 1963 – Jeff Fassero, American baseball player and coach
  • 1965 – Vinnie Jones, English/Welsh footballer and actor
  • 1965 – Patrik Sjöberg, Swedish high jumper
  • 1968 – Carrie Ann Inaba, American actress, dancer, and choreographer
  • 1968 – Joé Juneau, Canadian ice hockey player and engineer
  • 1969 – Marilyn Manson, American singer-songwriter, actor, and director
  • 1969 – Shaun Micheel, American golfer
  •  – Stian Carstensen, Norwegian multi-instrumentalist and composer
  •  – Sakis Rouvas, Greek singer-songwriter, producer, and actor
  •  – Uday Chopra, actor and filmmaker
  • 1974 – Iwan Thomas, Welsh sprinter and coach
  • 1975 – Bradley Cooper, American actor and producer
  • 1975 – Warrick Dunn, American football player
  • 1975 – Mike Grier, American ice hockey player and scout
  • 1976 – Diego Tristán, Spanish footballer
  • 1978 – January Jones, American actress
  • 1979 – Kyle Calder, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1979 – Giuseppe Gibilisco, Italian pole vaulter
  •  – Deadmau5 (Joel Thomas Zimmerman), Canadian musician
  •  – Janica Kostelić, Croatian skier
  • 1984 – Derrick Atkins, Bahamian sprinter
  •  – Diego Vera, Uruguayan footballer
  • 1986 – Deepika Padukone, Indian actress
  •  – Azizulhasni Awang, track cyclist
  • 1988 – Luke Daniels,
  • 1989 – Krisztián Németh, Hungarian footballer
  • 1990 – Mark Nicholls, Australian rugby league player

Deaths on January 5

  •  – Al-Mu’tasim, Abbasid caliph (b. )
  • 941 – Zhang Yanhan, Chinese chancellor (b. )
  •  – Edward the Confessor, English king (b. )
  •  – Bolesław IV the Curly, High Duke of Poland (b. )
  •  – Philippa Plantagenet, Countess of Ulster (b. )
  •  – John Montacute, 3rd Earl of Salisbury, English politician (b. )
  •  – Philippa of England, Queen of Denmark, Norway and (b. )
  • 1477 – Charles, Duke of Burgundy (b. )
  •  – Marko Marulić, Croatian poet (b. )
  •  – Felix Manz, Swiss martyr (b. )
  •  – Giulio Clovio, Dalmatian painter (b. 1498)
  • – Anna Sibylle of Hanau-Lichtenberg, German noblewoman (b. )
  •  – Catherine de’ Medici, queen of Henry II of France (b. )
  • 1713 – Jean Chardin, French explorer and author (b. )
  •  – Antonio Lotti, Italian composer and educator (b. )
  •  – Empress Elizabeth of  (b. )
  •  – John Russell, 4th Duke of Bedford, English politician, Secretary of State for the Southern Department (b. )
  •  – Samuel Huntington, American jurist and politician, 18th Governor of Connecticut (b. )
  •  – George Johnston, Scottish-Australian colonel and politician, Lieutenant Governor of New South Wales (b. )
  •  – Robert Smirke, English painter and illustrator (b. )
  • 1846 – Alfred Thomas Agate, American painter and illustrator (b. )
  •  – Joseph Radetzky von Radetz, Austrian field marshal (b. )
  •  – John Neumann, Czech-American bishop and saint (b. )
  •  – Charles Tompson, Australian poet and public servant (b. )
  • 1885 – Peter Christen Asbjørnsen, Norwegian author and scholar (b. 1812)
  •  – Henri Herz, Austrian pianist and composer (b. )
  •  – Ezra Otis Kendall, American , astronomer and mathematician (b. )
  • 1904 – Karl Alfred von Zittel, German paleontologist and geologist (b. )
  • 1910 – Léon Walras, French-Swiss economist and academic (b. 1834)
  • 1917 – Isobel Lilian Gloag, English painter (b. )
  • 1922 – Ernest Shackleton, Anglo-Irish sailor and explorer (b. 1874)
  • 1933 – Calvin Coolidge, American lawyer and politician, 30th President of the United States (b. )
  • 1942 – Tina Modotti, Italian photographer, model, actress, and activist (b. )
  • 1943 – George Washington Carver, American botanist, educator, and inventor (b. 1864)
  • 1951 – Soh Jaipil, South -American journalist and activist (b. 1864)
  • 1951 – Andrei Platonov, Russian journalist and author (b. 1899)
  • 1952 – Victor Hope, 2nd Marquess of Linlithgow, Scottish colonel and politician, 46th Governor-General of  (b. )
  • 1952 – Hristo Tatarchev, Bulgarian-Italian physician and activist (b. )
  • 1954 – Rabbit Maranville, American baseball player and manager (b. )
  • 1956 – Mistinguett, French actress and singer (b. 1875)
  • 1963 – Rogers Hornsby, American baseball player, coach, and manager (b. 1896)
  • 1970 –  Born, German physicist and mathematician, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1882)
  • 1970 – Roberto Gerhard, Catalan composer and scholar (b. 1896)
  • 1971 – Douglas Shearer, Canadian-American sound designer and engineer (b. 1899)
  • 1972 – Tevfik Rüştü Aras, Turkish physician and politician, 6th Turkish Minister of Foreign Affairs (b. 1883)
  • 1974 – Lev Oborin, Russian pianist and educator (b. 1907)
  • 1976 – John A. Costello, Irish lawyer and politician, 3rd Taoiseach of Ireland (b. 1891)
  • 1978 – Wyatt Emory Cooper, American author and screenwriter (b. 1927)
  • 1979 – Billy Bletcher, American actor, singer, and screenwriter (b.
  • 1979 – Charles Mingus, American bassist, composer, bandleader (b. 1922)
  • 1981 – Harold Urey, American chemist and astronomer, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1893)
  • 1981 – Lanza del Vasto, Italian poet and philosopher (b. )
  • 1982 – Hans Conried, American actor (b. 1917)
  • 1982 – Edmund Herring, Australian general and politician, 7th Chief Justice of Victoria (b. 1892)1985 – Robert L. Surtees, American cinematographer (b. 1906) – Margaret Laurence, Canadian author and academic (b. 1926)
  • 1987 – Herman Smith-Johannsen, Norwegian-Canadian skier (b. 1875)
  • 1990 – Arthur Kennedy, American actor (b. 1914)
  • 1991 – Vasko Popa, Serbian poet and academic (b. 1922)
  • 1994 – Tip O’Neill, American lawyer and politician, 55th Speaker of the United States House of Representatives (b. 1912)
  • 1997 – André Franquin, Belgian author and illustrator (b. )
  • 1997 – Burton Lane, American composer and songwriter (b. 1912)
  •  – Sonny Bono, American singer-songwriter, producer, actor, and politician (b. )
  • 2000 – Kumar Ponnambalam, Sri Lankan Tamil lawyer and politician (b. 1938)
  • 2003 – Roy Jenkins, Welsh politician, Chancellor of the Exchequer (b. 1920)
  • 2004 – Norman Heatley, and chemist, co-developed penicillin (b. 1911)
  • 2006 – Merlyn Rees, Welsh educator and politician, Home Secretary (b. 1920)
  • 2007 – Momofuku Ando, Taiwanese-Japanese businessman, founded Nissin Foods (b. 1910)
  • 2009 – Griffin Bell, American lawyer and politician, 72nd United States Attorney General (b. )
  •  – Willie Mitchell, American singer-songwriter, trumpet player, and producer (b. 1928)
  • 2010 – Kenneth Noland, American painter (b. 1924)
  • 2012 – Isaac Díaz Pardo, Spanish painter and sculptor (b. 1920)
  • 2012 – Frederica Sagor Maas, American author, playwright, and screenwriter (b. 1900)
  • 2014 – Eusébio, Mozambican-Portuguese footballer and manager (b. 1942)
  • 2014 – Carmen Zapata, American actress (b. 1927)
  •  – Jean-Pierre Beltoise, French racing driver and motorcycle racer (b. )
  • 2015 – Bernard Joseph McLaughlin, American bishop (b. 1912)
  • 2016 – Pierre Boulez, French pianist, composer, and conductor (b. 1925)
  • – Jill Saward, English rape victim and activist (b. 1965)
  •  – Asghar Khan, Pakistani three star general and politician (b. 1921)
  • 2018 – Thomas Bopp, American astronomer best known as the co-discoverer of comet Hale–Bopp (b. 1949)
  • 2018 – Karin von Aroldingen, German ballerina (b. 1941)
  • 2019 – Bernice Sandler, American ’s rights activist (b. 1928)
  • 2019 – Dragoslav Šekularac, Serbian footballer and manager (b. 1937)

Holidays and observances on January 5

  • Christian Feast day:
    • Charles of Mount Argus
    • John Neumann ()
    • Pope Telesphorus
    • Simeon Stylites (Latin Church)
    • January 5 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)
  • Harbin Ice and Snow Sculpture Festival (Harbin, China
  • Joma Shinji ()
  • National Bird Day (United States)
  • The Twelfth day of Christmas and the Twelfth Night of Christmas. (Western )
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