Answering Exams

Inventions and Inventors

0

and

A

Air Brake : 
George Westinghouse, U.S.A. .
Air Conditioning : 
Willis Carrier, U.S.A. 1911.
Airplane : 
engine-powered, Wilbur and Orville Wright, U.S.A., .
Airship :
Henri Giffard, , ; Ferdin von Zeppelin, , .
Antibiotics :
Louis Pasteur, Jules-Francois Joubert, France, ; (discovery of penicillin) Alexander Fleming, , .
Antiseptic : 
(surgery) Joseph Lister, England, .
Aspirin : 
Dr. Felix Hoffman, Germany, .
Atom :
(nuclear model of) Ernest Rutherford, England, 1911.
Atomic Structure :
Ernest Rutherford, England, 1911; Niels Bohr, Denmark, .
Automated Teller Machine (ATM) :
Don Wetzel, U.S.A., .
Automobile :
(first with internal combustion engine, rmp) Karl Benz, Germany, ; (first with practical highspeed internal combustion engine, rpm) Gottlieb Daimler, Germany, ; (first true automobile, not carriage with motor) Rene Panhard, Emile Lavassor, France, ; (carburetor, spray) Charles E. Duryea, U.S.A., .
Autopilot : 
(for aircraft) Elmer A. Sperry, U.S.A., c., first successful , , in a Curtiss flying boat.

B

Bacteria : 
Anton van Leeuwenhoek, The Netherlands, .
Bakelite :
Leo Hendrik Baekeland, U.S.A., .
Ball Bearing :
Philip Vaughan, England, .
Ballon, Hot-air : 
Joseph and Jacques Montgolfier, France, .
Bar Codes :
Monarch Marking, U.S.A. .
Barometer :
Evangelista Torricelli, , .
Bicycle :
Karl D. von Sauebronn, Germany, ; (first modern model) James Starley, England, .
Big Bang Theory :
(the universe originated with a huge explosion) George LeMaitre, Belgium, ; (modified LeMaitre theory labeled �Big Bang�) George A. Gamov, U.S.A., ; (cosmic microwave background radiation discovered) Arno A. Penzias and Robert W. Wilson, U.S.A. .
Blood, Circulation of :
William Harvey, England, .
Bomb, Atomic : 
J. Robert Oppenheimer et al., U.S.A., .
Bomb, Thermonuclear (hydrogen) :
Edward Teller et al., U.S.A., .
Boyle�s :
(relation between pressure and volume in gases) Robert Boyle, Ireland, .
Braille :
Louis Braille, France, .
Bridges :
(suspension, iron chains) James Finley, Pa., ; (wire suspension) Marc Seguin, Lyons, ; (truss) Ithiel Town, U.S.A., .
Bullet :
(conical) Claude Minie, France, .

C

Calculating Machine :
(logarithms) John Napierm Scotland, ; (digital calculator) Blaise Pascal, ; (multiplication machine) Gottfried Leibniz, Germany, ; (�analytical engine� design, included concepts of programming, taping) Charles Babbage, England, .
Camera :
George Eastman, U.S.A., ; (Polaroid) Edwin Land, U.S.A., 1948
Car
William Lear, Elmer Wavering, U.S.A. .
Cells :
Robert Hooke, England, .
Chewing Gum : 
John Curtis, U.S.A., ; (chicle-based) Thomas Adams, U.S.A., .
Cholera Bacterium :
Robert Koch, Germany, .
Circuit, Integrated :
(theoretical) G.W.A. Dummer, England, 1952; Jack S. Kilby, Instruments, U.S.A., .
Clock, Pendulum :
Christian Huygens, The Netherlands, .
Clock, Quartz :
Warren A. Marrison, /U.S.A., 1927.
Cloning, Animal :
John B. Gurdon, U.K., 1970.
Coca-Cola :
John Pemberton, U.S.A., .
Combustion :
Antoine Lavoisier, France, .
Compact Disk : 
RCA, U.S.A., .
Compact Disk (CD) :
Philips Electronics, The Netherlands; Sony Corp., , .
Computed Tomography 
(CT scan, CAT scan) :
Godfrey Hounsfield, Allan Cormack, U.K. U.S.A., 1972
Computers :
(analytical engine) Charles Babbage, 1830s; (ENIAC, Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator, first all-electronic, completed) John Presper Eckert, Jr., John Mauchly, U.S.A., 1945; (UNIVAC, Universal Automatic Computer) ; (personal computer) Steve Wozniak, U.S.A., .
Computer Laptop :
Radio Shack Corp., U.S.A., .
Concrete :
Joseph Monier, France, .

D

DDT :
Othmar Zeidler, Germany, .
Detector, Metal :
Gerhard Fisher, Germany/U.S.A., late 1920s.
Deuterium :
(heavy hydrogen) Harold Urey, U.S.A., .
DNA :
(deoxyribonucleic acid) Friedrich Meischer, Germany, ; (determination of double-helical structure) F. H. Crick, England and James D. Watson, U.S.A., .
Dye :
William H. Perkin, England, .
Dynamite :
Alfred Nobel, , 1867.

E

Electric Generator (dynamo) :
(laboratory model) Michael Faraday, England, ; Joseph Henry, U.S.A., c.; (hand-driven model) Hippolyte Pixii, France, ; (alternating-current generator) Nikola Tesla, U.S.A., 1892.
Electron :
Sir Joseph J. Thompson, U.S.A., .
Electronic Mail :
Ray Tomlinson, U.S.A., 1972.
Elevator, Passenger :
Elisha G. Otis, U.S.A., 1852.
E=mc2 
equivalence of mass and energy) Albert Einstein, , 1907.
Engine, Internal Combustion :
No single inventor. Fundamental theory established by Sadi Carnot, France, ; (two-stroke) Etienne Lenoir, France, ; (ideal operating cycle for four-stroke) Alphonse Beau de Roche, France, ; (operating four-stroke) Nikolaus Otto, Germany, ; (diesel) Rudolf Diesel, Germany, 1892; (rotary) Felix Wanket, Germany, .
Evolution :
: (organic) Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, France, ; (by natural selection) Charles , England, .

F

Facsimile (fax) :
Alexander Bain, Scotland, .
Fiber Optics : 
Narinder Kapany, England, .
Film Photographic :
George Eastman, U.S.A., 1884.
Flashlight, Battery-operated Portable :
Conrad Hubert, /U.S.A., 1899
Flask, Vacuum (Thermos) :
Sir James Dewar, Scotland, 1892.
Fuel Cell :
William R. Grove, U.K.,

G

Genetic Engineering :
Stanley N. Cohen, Herbert W. Boyer, U.S.A., .
Gravitation, Law of :
Sir Issac Newton, England, c.1665 (published ).
Gunpowder :
, c.700.
Gyrocompass :
Elmer A. Sperry, U.S.A., .
Gyroscope :
Jean Leon Foucault, France, 1852.

H

Helicopter :
(double rotor) Heinrich Focke, Germany, ; (single rotor) Igor Silorsky, U.S.A., .
Helium First Observed on Sun:
Sir Joseph Lockyer, England, .
Home Videotape Systems 
(VCR) :
(Betamax) Sony, Japan, (); (VHS) Matsushita, Japan, .

I

Ice Age Theory :
Louis Agassiz, Swiss-American, .
Insulin :
(first isolated) Sir Frederick G. Banting and Charles H. Best, Canada, ; (discovery first published) Banting and Best, ; ( awarded for purification for use in humans) John Macleod and Banting, ; (first synthesized), China, .
Internet :
Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) at the Dept. of Defense, U.S.A., .
Iron, Electric : 
Henry W. Seely, U.S.A., .
Isotopes : 
Frederick Soddy, England, 1912.

J

Jet Propulsion :
(engine) Sir Frank Whittle, England, Hans von Ohain, Germany, 1936; (aircraft) Heinkel He 178, 1939.

L

Laser :
(theoretical work on) Charles H. Townes, Arthur L. Schawlow, U.S.A. Basov, A. Prokhorov, U.S.S.R., ; (first working model) T. H. Maiman, U.S.A., .
LCD (liquid crystal display) :
Hoffmann-La Roche, Switzerland, 1970.
Lens, Bifocal :
Benjamin Franklin, U.S.A., c..
Light-Emitting Diode (LED) :
Nick Holonyak, Jr., U.S.A., .
Light, Speed of :
(theory that light has finite velocity) Olaus Roemer, Denmark, .
Locomotive :
(steam powered) Richard Trevithick, England, ; (first practical, due to multiple-fire-tube boiler) George Stephenson, England, 1829; (largest steam-powered) Union Pacific�s �Big Boy�, U.S.A., .
Loud Speaker :
Chester W. Rice, Edward W. Kellogg, U.S.A., .

M

Machine Gun :
(multibarrel) Richard J. Gatling, U.S.A., 1862; (single barrel, belt-fed) S. Maxim, Anglo-American, 1884.
Magnet, Earth is : 
William Gilbert, England, .
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) : 
Raymond Damadian, Paul Lauterbur, U.S.A., early 1970s.
Matchstick/box : 
(phosphorus) Francois Derosne, France, 1816; (friction) Charles Sauria, France, ; (safety) J. E. Lundstrom, Sweden, .
Metric System : 
Revolutionary government of France, -.
Microphone : 
Charles Wheatstone, England, .
Microscope : 
(compound) Zacharias Janssen, The Netherlands, ; (electron) Vladimir Zworykin et al., U.S.A., Canada, Germany, -1939.
Microwave Oven : 
Percy Spencer, U.S.A., .
Missile, Guided : 
Wernher von Braun, Germany, .
Motion, Laws of : 
Isaac Newton, England, 1687.
Motion Pictures : 
Thomas A. Edison, U.S.A., .
Motion Pictures, Sound : 

Motor, Electric : 

Motorcycle : 
(motor tricycle) Edward Butler, England, 1884; (gasoline-engine motorcycle) Gottlieb Daimler, Germany, 1885.
Moving Assembly Line : 
Product of various inventions. First picture with synchronized musical score : Don Juan, ; with spoken diologue : The Jazz Singer, 1927; both Warner Bros.

Michael Faraday, England, ; (alternating-current) Nikola Tesla, U.S.A., 1892.

O

Ozone : 
Christian Schonbein, Germany, 1839.

N

Neutron : 
James Chadwick, England, 1932.
Nuclear Fission : 
Otto Hahn, Fritz Strassmann, Germany, .
Nuclear Reactor : 
Enrico Fermi, Italy, et al., 1942.
Nylon : 
Wallace H. Carothers, U.S.A., .

P

Pacemaker : 
Clarence W. Lillehie, Earl Bakk, U.S.A., .
Paper : 
China, c.100 A.D.
Parachute : 
Louis S. Lenormand, France, 1783.
Pen : 
(fountain) Lewis E. Waterman, U.S.A., 1884; (ball-point) John H. Loud, U.S.A., 1888; Lazlo Biro, Argentina, .
Phonograph : 
Thomas A. Edison, U.S.A., 1877.
Photography : 
(first paper negative, first photograph, on metal) Joseph Nicephore Niepce, France, 1816-1827; (discovery of fixative powers of hyposulfite of soda) Sir John Herschel, England, ; (first direct positive image on silver plate) Louis Dagauerre, based on work with Niepce, France, 1839; (first paper negative from which a number of positive prints could be made) William Talbot, England, . Work of these four men, taken together, forms basis for all modern photography. (First color images) Alexandre Becquerel, Claude Niepce de Saint-Victor, France, 1848-1860; (commercial color film with three emulsion layers, Kodachrome) U.S.A. .
Photovoltaic Effect :
(light falling on certain materials can produce electricity) Edmund Becquerel, France, 1839.
Planetary Motion, Laws of : 
Johannes Kepler, Germany, , .
Plastics : 
(first material nitrocellulose softened by vegetable oil, camphor, precursor to Celluloid) Alexander Parkes, England, 1855; (Celluloid, involving recognition of vital effect of camphor) John W. Hyatt, U.S.A., 1869; (Bakelite, first completely synthetic plastic) Leo H. Baekeland, U.S.A., 1910; (theoretical background of macromolecules and process of polymerization on which modern plastics industry rests) Hermann Staudinger, Germany, 1922; (polypropylene and low-pressure method for producing high-density polyethylene) Robert Banks, Paul Hogan, U.S.A., 1958.
Polio,
(experimentally safe dead-virus vaccine) Jonas E. Salk, U.S.A., 1952; (effective large-scale field trials) ; (officially approved) 1955; (safe oral live-virus vaccine developed) Albert B. Sabin, U.S.A. ; (available in the U.S.A.) 1960.
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) : 
Eugen Baumann, Germany, .
Printing : 
(block) Japan, c.700; (movable type) , c., Johann Gutenberg, Germany, c.; (lithography, offset) Aloys Senefelder, Germany, ; (rotary press) Richard Hoe, U.S.A. ; (linotype) Ottmar Mergenthaler, U.S.A., 1884.
Printing Press, Movable Type : 
Johannes Gutenburg, Germany, c.1450.
Proton : 
Ernest Rutherford, England, .
Pulsars : 
Antony Hewish and Jocelyn Bell Burnel, England, .

Q

Quantum Theory : 
() , Germany, 1900; (sub-atomic) Niels Bohr, Denmark, 1913; (quantum mechanics) Werner Heisenberg, Erwin Schrodinger, Germany, .

R

Rabies Immunization : 
Louis Pasteur, France, 1885.
Radar : 
(limited range) Christian Hulsmeyer, Germany, ; (pulse modulation, used for measuring height of ionosphere) Gregory Breit, Merle Tuve, U.S.A., 1925; (first practical radar-radio detection and ranging) Sir Robert Watson-Watt, England, -1935.
Radio : 
(electromagnetism theory of) James Clerk Maxwell, England, ; (spark coil, generator of electromagnetic waves) Heinrich Hertz, Germany, 1886; (first practical system of wireless telegraphy) Guglielmo , Italy, ; (first long-distance telegraphic radio signal sent across the Atlantic) Macroni, ; (vacuum electron tube, basis for radio telephony) Sir John Fleming, England, 1904; (regenerative circuit, allowing long-distance sound reception) Edwin H. Armstrong, U.S.A., 1912; (frequency modulation-FM) Edwin H. Armstrong, U.S.A., .
Radiocarbon Dating, Carbon-14 Method : 
(discovered) Willard F. Libby, U.S.A., 1947; (first demonstrated) U.S.A., .
Razor : 
(safety) King Gillette, U.S.A., 1901; (electric) Jacob Schick, U.S.A., 1928, 1931.
Refrigerator : 
Alexander Twining, U.S.A., James Harrison, , ; (first with a compressor) the Domelse, Chicago, U.S.A., 1913.
Remote Control, Television : 
Robert Adler, U.S.A., 1950.
Richter Scale : 
Charles F. Richter, U.S.A., 1935.
Rifle : 
(muzzle-loaded) Italy, Germany, c.; (breech-loaded) England, France, Germany, U.S.A., c.; (bolt-action) Paul von Mauser, Germany, ; (automatic) John Browning, U.S.A., .
Rocket : 
(liquid-fueled) Robert Goddard, U.S.A., 1926.
Rotation of Earth : 
Jean Bernard Foucault, France, .
Rubber : 
(vulcanization process) Charles Goodyear, U.S.A., 1839.

S

Saccharin : 
Constantine Fuhlberg, Ira Remsen, U.S.A., .
Safety Pin : 
Walter Hunt, U.S.A., 1849.
Saturn, Ring Around : 
Christian Huygens, The Netherlands, .
Seismograph : 
(first accurate) John Bohlin, Sweden, 1962.
Sewing Machine : 
Elias Howe, U.S.A., ; (continuous stitch) Isaac Singer, U.S.A., 1851.
Spectrum : 
Sir Isaac Newton, England, 1665-.
Steam Engine : 
Thomas Savery, England, ; (atmospheric steam engine) Thomas Newcomen, England, ; (steam engine for pumping water from collieries) Savery, Newcomen, ; (modern condensing, double acting) James Watt, England, ; (high-pressure) Oliver Evans, U.S.A., 1804.
Steel, Stainless : 
Harry Brearley, U.K., .
Stethoscope : 
Rene Laennec, France, 1819.
Submarine : 
Cornelis Drebbel, The Netherlands, .

T

Tank, Military : 
Sir Ernest Swinton, England, 1914.
Tape Recorder : 
Valdemar Poulsen, Denmark, 1899.
Teflon : 
DuPont, U.S.A., .
Telegraph : 
Samuel F. B. Morse, U.S.A., .
Telephone : 
Alexander Graham Bell, U.S.A., 1837.
Telephoe, Mobile : 
Bell Laboratories, U.S.A., .
Telescope : 
Hans Lippershey, The Netherlands, ; (astronomical) Galileo Galilei, Italy, 1609; (reflecting) Isaac Newton, England, .
Television : 
Vladimir Zworykin, U.S.A., 1923, and also kinescope (cathode ray tube) 1928; (mechanical disk-scanning method) successfully demaonstrated by J. L. Baird, Scotland, C. F. Jenkins, U.S.A., 1926; (first all-electric television image) Philo T. Famsworth, U.S.A., 1927; (color, mechanical disk) Baird, 1928; (color, compatible with black and white) George Valensi, France, 1938; (color, sequential rotating filter) Peter Goldmark, U.S.A., first introduced, 1951; (color, compatible with black and white) commercially introduced in U.S.A., National Television Systems committee, 1953.
Thermodynamics : 
(first law : energy cannot be created or destroyed, only converted from one from to another) Julius Von Mayer, Germany, 1842; James Joule, England, ; (second law : heat cannot itself pass from a colder to a warmer body) Rudolph Clausius, Germany, 1850; (third law : the entropy of ordered solids reaches zero at the absolute zero of temperature) Walter Nernstm Germany, 1918.
Thermometer : 
(open-column) Galileo Galilei, c.; (clinical) Santorio Santorio, Padua, c.; (mercury, also Fahrenheit scale) Gabriel D. Fahrenheit, Germany, ; (centigrade scale) Anders Celsius, Sweden, ; (absolute-temperature, or Kelvin, scale) William Thompson, Lord Kelvin, England, 1848.
Tire, Pneumatic : 
Robert W. Thompson, England, ; (bicycle tire) John B. Dunlop, Northern Ireland, 1888.
Transformer, Electric : 
William Stanely, U.S.A., 1885.
Transistor : 
John Bardeen, Walter H. Brattain, William B. Shockley, U.S.A., 1947.
Typewriter : 
Christopher Sholes, Carlos Glidden, U.S.A., 1867.

V

Velcro : 
George de Mestral, Switzerland, 1948.
Video Disk : 
Philips Co., The Netherlands, 1972.
Vitamins : 
(hypothesis of disease deficiency) Sir F. G. Hopkins, Casimir Funk, England, 1912; (vitamin A) Elmer V. McCollum, M. Davis, U.S.A., 1912-1914; (vitamin B) McCollum, U.S.A., -; (thiamin B1) Casimir Funk, England, 1912; ( riboflavin, B2) D. T. Smith, E. G. Hendrick, U.S.A., 1926; (niacin) Conrad Elvehjem, U.S.A., 1937; (B6) Paul Gyorgy, U.S.A., 1934; (vitamin C) C. A. Hoist, T. Froelich, Norway, 1912; (vitamin D) McCollum, U.S.A., 1922; (folic acid) Lucy Wills, England, 1933.

W

Wheel : 
(cart, solid wood) Mesopotamia, c.3800-3 B.C.
Windmill : 
Persia, c.600.
Wide Web : 
(developed while working at CERN) Tim Berners-Lee, England, ; (development of Mosaic browser makes WWW available for general use) Marc Andreeson, U.S.A., .

X

X-ray Imaging : 
Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen, Germany, 1895.
Xerography : 
Chester Carlson, U.S.A., 1900.

Z

Zero : 
, c.600; (absolute zero temperature, cessation of all molecular energy) William Thompson, Lord Kelvin, England, 1848.

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